Civil Rights



• “colored people” and “negro” are not socially acceptable terms, unless you are 90 years old

• “African-Americans” is ok but clumsy and annoys some people

• “black people” and “blacks” is better, just as we say “white people” and “whites”

• Or “people of color” but then you are referring to everyone but white people


Document Analysis skill #3

• Origin

• Purpose

• Value

• Limitation


Source: List with the author, title, date, then mention the form

All sources are either:

• Primary – letter, journal, interview, speeches, cartoon, poster – any works where author is basically speaking in first person

• Secondary – published works – can even include a compilation of primary documents. Usually peer reviewed, and after the fact.

• Must determine the source so can address the purpose


Look at the source

• What is the intent? and/or

• Determine the audience (especially if primary) to whom addressed?

What does the author want to happen because of this document? What purpose does it serve?

It could be political, scientific, personal, etc


• What do I learn from this document?

• Why should I trust it?

• How would I use it if I was a historian?

• Does the author or form of the document or the audience make this relevant or useful?

• This is done with reference to the value and purpose

How do DuBois and Washington

• Differ

• Compare?

• With respect to the rights of blacks?


• Acceptance of the social realities of segregation

• “Cast down your bucket”—work with what you have (dignity of farming)

• Show usefulness  white acceptance

• And then “mutual progress”

• Belief in self-help to show black people can take care of their stuff


• Help us understand how to evaluate these authors?

• For instance: who’s right?

• Start with limitations


• Why can’t I rely solely on this document?

• What doesn’t it tell me?

• What else would I have to read in order to fully understand the issue or event this discusses?

• Would author, form, or audience skew what’s stated in the document?

• Again, this is done with respect to the origin and purpose

Ethics of Living Jim Crow

• In groups of three, do the following:

• Person #1—describe one of the stories that most affected you, and explain why

• Person #2—comment on that story and then discuss yours

• Person #3—comment on either person 1 or 2’s story, and then discuss yours

• Then, as a team, explain—what does it mean to “live Jim Crow”- and does that affect which of the two (Washington, Du Bois) you think had the right strategy for gaining equality?

Ethics of Living Jim Crow

• How does this document affect either man’s argument?

• What are the lessons of Jim Crow?

• What is the reality of living Jim Crow—what does it mean, in one well-phrased sentence?

Garveyism—a 3



• Looking at the Garvey’s own words, what is his strategy for black equality?

• Why would we expect this to occur in the

1920s? Examine the other documents to develop your answer.

Main Thought Question: Why will the Civil Rights Movement begin in the 1950s?

• This is a context question—as in, why now?

• How would you use the text to answer it?

• Take a look at pages 836-841

– Check for key points and ideas

– Intro, first sentences (and last) of each paragraph, bold-faced type, pictures and graphs

Go to intro on page 844

• The three most important sentences—within the context of our main thought question?

• (this is a typically IB document analysis question, such as you will see on the final)

• Is there a connection to the previous reading section?

What is the importance of the

Brown decision?

• How did you “ID” it?

• What was the strategy behind it?

The follow-up assignment to the

Civil War Graphic Essay

• Write it up as a one-page paper.

• Why was Compromise impossible by 1860?

• Identify the time context and the trigger event

• Give a broad overview of your argument

• And explain how the factors that led to Civil

War interrelate (affect each other)

• Individual assignment—not a shared effort

• Due Friday after Thanksgiving break

What is the importance of the

Brown decision?

• How did you “ID” it?

• We discussed why it was a good strategy.

• So, what was its weakness—a major structural flaw with its strategy of getting a Supreme

Court ruling for desegregation?

Why is Brown the beginning of the movement (and not the end?)

• What does it take to desegregate the South?

• I mean, really

OPVL practice: Birmingham Letter

• This is a graded activity

• With respect to the origin and purpose, explain the value and limitation of the

Birmingham Letter to an historian studying the Civil Rights Movement

• You have five minutes

• Get started as you walk in and sit down

Letter from a Birmingham Jail

• Though written in 1963, it looks back to summarize the movement.

• What is the strategy that lay behind the Civ

Rights Movement?

• Is there a weakness to the strategy

Assessment: Analyze and Assess the strategy and success of the Civil

Rights Movement from 1954-1965

Steps: Do Steps 1 - 3 with a partner

1. Figure out the main theme that describes the overall strategy of the movement

2. Decide on visual symbols to represent the listed events

3. Find similar groupings of events that you might place together and explain why they are directly connected — that is, how they illustrate the supporting ideas.

In other words, show the relationship of each group of events to each other in a way that supports the main theme or idea you want to discuss in relation to the Civil Rights Movement.

You will be evaluating the success of the movement. To answer that, consider the movement ’ s goals, first, then address the degree to which they succeeded.

Events to be included:

Brown V Board of Education

Little Rock, Arkansas

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Greensboro, etc Sit-Ins

Freedom Rides

Albany Movement vs Birmingham

March on Washington

Mississippi Freedom Summer

Voting Rights Act of 1865

These should all have ID’ed already.

4. Finally, as individuals , write a one-page analysis that explains and summarizes your mind-map

Ten Minute Activity:

How do the Mississippi Freedom Summer and the origins of the Voting Rights Act fit into our story?

How do they differ?

Do a comparison and contrast of these two events with any of the previous civil rights movement actions.

Theme question—how does the civil rights movement change during the 1960s?

• The context—what is happening, in general, during the 1960s?

• Conversely, why would the CRM be seen to encompass the years from 1954-1965?

If Time:

Read intro on page 868 —key points?

Skim next six pages

Read conclusion on page 873

-what is the context for the mid1960s’ era

Civil Rights Movement?

What is the problem?

• Compare Kerner Report to Black Panther Party


• How do these documents relate to each other?

• What is the connection between them?

• Or—what is the problem that must be addressed, and how will this change the direction of the Movement?

What about MLK?

• Compare and contrast the text of the “I Have a

Dream” speech to the excerpt from “Beyond


• What has changed by the mid-1960s?

How do we evaluate the success of the new direction in the Civil Rights Movement?

George Wallace and the election of


Is there a coherent philosophy here?

Jules Pfeiffer cartoon on page 893 of

Created Equal

Or - who votes for Wallace?