Lower Course - Crofton School

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What landforms and features are associated
with the lower course of a river?
LO: To investigate the main features in the lower course
of the river.
True or False?
1. Infiltration is when leaves catch raindrops.
2. Surface runoff goes through soil.
3. An example of surface storage is a lake.
4. In the river system, evaporation is an output.
5. A smaller river joining a main river is called a watershed.
6. Freeze-thaw is a type of erosion.
7. In the lower course, the river is very wide and flat.
8. Attrition is where stones bash together.
9. Saltation is a type of erosion.
10. Hillsides that interlock with each other are called v-shaped valleys.
11. In the formation of a waterfall, the soft rock is on the top.
12. In a meander, the fastest current is on the outside.
13. A river cliff forms on the inside bend.
14. Deposition happens on the outside bend.
15. Most erosion happens in a meander on the outside bend.
True or False?
1. Infiltration is when leaves catch raindrops. F
2. Surface runoff goes through soil. F
3. An example of surface storage is a lake. T
4. In the river system, evaporation is an output. T
5. A smaller river joining a main river is called a watershed. F
6. Freeze-thaw is a type of erosion. F
7. In the lower course, the river is very wide and flat. T
8. Attrition is where stones bash together. T
9. Saltation is a type of erosion. F
10. Hillsides that interlock with each other are called v-shaped valleys.
F
11. In the formation of a waterfall, the soft rock is on the top. F
12. In a meander, the fastest current is on the outside. T
13. A river cliff forms on the inside bend. F
14. Deposition happens on the outside bend. F
15. Most erosion happens in a meander on the outside bend. T
Learning Outcomes
• Students MUST be able to identify the
landforms found in the lower section of a river.
• Students SHOULD be able to describe the
landforms.
• Students COULD explain their formation, with
the use of diagrams.
Where is the mouth of the River Tees?
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/river-tay-lower-course-and-estuary/4313.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-river-severn-lower-course-and-estuary/3077.html
The lower section of the River Tees
The lower course of the River Tees is
_________. There is a lot of __________ along
it. There is also __________ on the northern
bank. Here the river flows in a _________, wide
channel. It flows __________ because there is
much less friction. The load it carries is
_________, and it carries it by suspension and
solution. The sea comes up the river at the
mouth. At low tide the edges are exposed. That
leaves __________ at the sides of the river.
Mudflats, Fast, Small, Flat, Industry, Marshland, Deep.
Levées - a raised river bank
(can be natural features formed
by deposition or artificial
structures built to increase
channel capacity and reduce
flood risk)
Floodplain - the area of land
around a river channel which is
formed during times of flood when
the amount of water in a river
exceeds its channel capacity and
deposition of rich silt occurs. The
rich silt is called alluvium.
A delta happens when a river has lots
of load. When it reaches the sea the
water flow slows down, so it drops its
load. If the waves or currents aren’t
too strong and the land doesn’t slope
to steeply , the load builds up to make
a delta. The sediment blocks the river
so it has to divide up into lots of
different channels called distributaries.
Deltas can be different shapes, but
the two main types are bird’s foot
(Mississippi) and arcuate deltas
(Nile).
The River Thames and the River
Tees both have estuaries. An
estuary is a wide, deep mouth.
Estuaries are really useful for
shipping, so they usually have
ports and factories along them.
Stage 1: Research
• Get into groups of 6. Then divide yourselves into pairs.
• Give pair will be responsible for producing an information
poster about one of the 3 topics…
- Floodplains and levees
- Estuaries
- Deltas.
• You only have 15 minutes to do this.
• Remember the learning outcomes…
- Students MUST be able to identify the landforms found in
the lower section of a river.
- Students SHOULD be able to describe the landforms.
- Students COULD explain their formation, with the use of
diagrams.
• RESOURCES: Page 72/72 of the Geog/GCSE textbook
(A3 sheet), page 9 of revision book (A4 sheet), OCR
textbook page 13.
Stage 2: Feedback to the rest of your
group
Identify the
landform…
Floodplain
and levees
Estuaries
Deltas
Describe what the landform is…
Explain how this is formed, using
diagrams…