The Brain, Learning, and Memory

The Brain, Learning, and Memory
Key: AWL to Study, Low-frequency Vocabulary
What is the connection between the brain, learning, and
Learning and Memory
• Learning
 modification in behavior due to an increase in knowledge or
• Memory
 ability to recall information
and experiences
How have the skills and knowledge you’ve acquired
modified your behavior?
Learning and Memory Linked
• Learning relies on memory.
 Learning requires the storage and retrieval of information.
• Memory relies on learning.
 An individual’s established
knowledge base provides a
structure of past learning.
 Incoming data attaches to that
structure though association.
Explain how you have learned something by associating it
with what you already knew.
Breakthroughs in Brain Research
• Use brain imagining techniques
 to clarify the process of
memory and learning.
 to provide educators and
students with academic
study skill strategies.
How do you think brain imaging techniques might clarify
the processes of learning and memory?
Three Stages of Memory
• Sensory, short-term, and long-term memory
• Sensory memory
 visual, auditory, and olfactory information
 transfers to short-term memory
• Short-term memory
 stores seven single or chunked items for 30 seconds without
 solves problems through reasoning process (example:
organizing facts into a coherent essay)
What is the difference between sensory memory and
short-term memory?
Long-term Memory
• The ability to transfer information from short- to longterm memory is relevant to the learning process.
 People use attention, repetition, and association with past
learning to encode information.
 Neurologically, encoding
happens when information
is repeatedly processed
in the hippocampus.
How do you encode information into long-term memory?
Critical Factor in Encoding
• Relationship of incoming data to pre-existing mental
 The more associations made with established learning,
the better new information is retained.
• Memories are not stored in
a single location.
 They are complex neuronal
networks spread through the
brain’s entire surface.
What is the most important factor in the transfer of
information from short- to long-term memory?
Research-based Study Techniques
• Access background knowledge on a topic.
 This primes the brain to make associations.
• Pose mental questions while learning.
 Compare and contrast new information with your current
• Classify and categorize.
 facilitates retention because it involves making connections
• Grasp overall concept to fit in details.
 Selectively highlight information.
 Take notes on main ideas.
 Outline and summarize.
Have you used these techniques?
• Encoding does not ensure retention.
 80% of learning is forgotten within 48 hours.
• Need to activate storage and retrieval processes:
 Review: retrieval of information temporarily copies it into
working memory for further processing in hippocampus.
 REM sleep: memories are replayed
and reinforced in hippocampus.
Explain two ways to help the brain retain information.
Ebbinghaus: Optimal Review
• Preliminary review
 new learning peaks after 10 minutes
• Subsequent study
 at one-day, one-week, one-month, and six-month intervals
 Permanent memory traces are stored where sensory inputs
first occurred.
 They are connected in neuronal networks.
How can what you’ve learned in this presentation help
you in your TOEFL study?