The Brain, Learning, and Memory Key: AWL to Study, Low-frequency Vocabulary What is the connection between the brain, learning, and memory? Learning and Memory • Learning modification in behavior due to an increase in knowledge or skills • Memory ability to recall information and experiences How have the skills and knowledge you’ve acquired modified your behavior? Learning and Memory Linked • Learning relies on memory. Learning requires the storage and retrieval of information. • Memory relies on learning. An individual’s established knowledge base provides a structure of past learning. Incoming data attaches to that structure though association. Explain how you have learned something by associating it with what you already knew. Breakthroughs in Brain Research • Use brain imagining techniques to clarify the process of memory and learning. to provide educators and students with academic study skill strategies. How do you think brain imaging techniques might clarify the processes of learning and memory? Three Stages of Memory • Sensory, short-term, and long-term memory • Sensory memory visual, auditory, and olfactory information transfers to short-term memory • Short-term memory stores seven single or chunked items for 30 seconds without repetition solves problems through reasoning process (example: organizing facts into a coherent essay) What is the difference between sensory memory and short-term memory? Long-term Memory • The ability to transfer information from short- to longterm memory is relevant to the learning process. People use attention, repetition, and association with past learning to encode information. Neurologically, encoding happens when information is repeatedly processed in the hippocampus. How do you encode information into long-term memory? Critical Factor in Encoding • Relationship of incoming data to pre-existing mental frameworks The more associations made with established learning, the better new information is retained. • Memories are not stored in a single location. They are complex neuronal networks spread through the brain’s entire surface. What is the most important factor in the transfer of information from short- to long-term memory? Research-based Study Techniques • Access background knowledge on a topic. This primes the brain to make associations. • Pose mental questions while learning. Compare and contrast new information with your current understanding. • Classify and categorize. facilitates retention because it involves making connections • Grasp overall concept to fit in details. Selectively highlight information. Take notes on main ideas. Outline and summarize. Have you used these techniques? Retention • Encoding does not ensure retention. 80% of learning is forgotten within 48 hours. • Need to activate storage and retrieval processes: Review: retrieval of information temporarily copies it into working memory for further processing in hippocampus. REM sleep: memories are replayed and reinforced in hippocampus. Explain two ways to help the brain retain information. Ebbinghaus: Optimal Review • Preliminary review new learning peaks after 10 minutes • Subsequent study at one-day, one-week, one-month, and six-month intervals Permanent memory traces are stored where sensory inputs first occurred. They are connected in neuronal networks. How can what you’ve learned in this presentation help you in your TOEFL study?