The Reading Process
It’s a Process
• Everybody does it
• Efficient readers – more automatic
• Struggling readers – need to be aware of steps
• P-R-O
• Prepare to read
• Read actively and Reflect
• Organize information to use it
Prepare to Read
Invisible Habits
• Purpose – why are you reading?
• Info – like the Sports page (quick scan)
• Studying - Review for a state licensing exam (slow and methodically)
• For enjoyment (comfortable speed to engage)
• Preview
• Scan to get an idea
• Previous Knowledge
• What do you already know about the topic?
• Connect to ideas you already know
• Predict
• what might be answered? (Textbooks)
• What will happen next? (Fiction/Non-fiction)
Study Skills Hint:
• Take cues from professors: “Be sure you
know___by the next class.”
• End of chapter questions tell you what you
should be learning from the reading in that
chapter – if you can’t answer the question, you
need to slow down your reading and go over
the material again.
Read Actively and Reflect
Reading Actively means…
• You’re paying attention
• You’re interested
• Keep an open mind
• YOU find the value
• You’re alert and attentive
You monitor and check for
• What did I just read?
• End of chapter questions?
Check it!
Check for
as you read…
• What did I just read?
• End of chapter
Reflecting means…
• “…thinking about the concepts, ideas,
interpretations, and emotions you’ve read about”
(Alexander & Lombardi 20).
• Connect new information to prior knowledge =
Greater Depth of thought = Critical Thinking
(What your professors want you to show)!
Reflecting is E.A.Sy.
• Reflecting = critical thinking = E.A.Sy.
• E = Explore (useful? significant?)
• A = Analyze (compare fact vs opinion, theories vs laws, etc.)
Useful? Signifcant
• Sy = Synthesize (mix old & new knowledge making new concepts)
Practice Reflecting
Explore – Describe some fast food ads you’ve
seen aimed at children.
Analyze – Choose one of the ads listed above,
and separate out the facts from opinions
within the ad.
Synthesize – How might this ad be re-written
to include only factual information and still
sell the product?
Organize What You’ve Read
S.U.R.R.E. you’re Organized
• Select the information
• Select - Facts, notes, tables, graphs, quotes, concepts,
• Use by:
Summarizing and paraphrasing
Underlining and writing notes in margins
Answering end of chapter questions
Making graphic organizers, timelines, etc.
Discussing concepts
• Rewrite notes into a useful order then…
• Re-say them aloud.
Try this to “self test”
• Could I explain this information to others?
• Can I apply what I’ve learned to similar
problems but with different variables?
• Examine your information again to be sure.
• Most forgetting occurs within 24 hours unless you
review it.
• Schedule a review
24 hours
In 2 days
In a week
In 2 weeks
Just before midterms
Just before finals
• (this means for all concepts)
• Reading is a process
• Everyone uses the steps – some people do it more
automatically than others.
• The P-R-O steps are:
• Preparing to Read
• Reading Actively and Reflecting
• Organizing the information to be used