Elements of Argument The story of Luna, an energy bar wrapper This is a Luna bar wrapper; she is making an argument. An Argument, broken into pieces: O Claims: statements of fact, opinion, or belief that O O O O form the backbone of arguments Reasons: the reason for making the claim—the larger issue Assumptions/Warrants: underlying beliefs that connect the claim and the reasons Evidence: “backing” in the form of examples, statistics, studies, etc. Qualifiers: words or phrases that limit the claim so that it is as precise as possible (few, often, in these circumstances, typically, etc.) Luna claims that O She is a “whole nutrition bar for women.” O She is 70% organic. O She has the “core 4.” O She is delicious. O She multitasks. O She is an “active sponsor of the Breast Cancer Fund.” Luna’s reason for being: O Women “crave a snack that does more than merely get [them] through the day. It needs to nourish, curb hunger, AND taste great…” Luna’s assumption: O Women need special food designed just for them. Sorry, guys. O Snacking is a good thing: “Feel the power of positive snacking.” Her evidence: O Nutrition facts! O Ingredients! O Seal of organic certification! Qualifiers? O Allergen information? Luna is not big on qualifiers. She is big on promises. She also cares about what you think about her and how you feel. Argumentative Appeals: O Ethos: ethical appeals—these support the credibility, moral character, and goodwill of the argument’s creator O Pathos: emotional appeals—that which stirs our emotions and reminds us of deeply held values O Logos: logical appeals— “facts,” which might come in the form of firsthand observations, interviews, surveys, etc., and secondhand evidence from authorities, the testimony of others, statistics, print/online sources Luna’s ethos: O Luna is an “active sponsor of the Breast Cancer Fund and its efforts to eliminate the environmental and preventable causes of the disease.” O “While other nutrients are also essential for human nutrition, the CORE 4 nutrients are listed because of their importance to many women seeking to maintain their health.” O Who inspires you? Women of Luna… Luna’s pathos: O Notes from the women of Luna O Nutrition should taste good and be good for you! O Organic = from the earth Luna’s Logos: O “Nutrition” Information! O Ingredients! References: O Lunsford, Andrea A. The St. Martin’s Handbook. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2011. Print. And Luna can be a purse.