World Geography Core Concepts Geography Basics Ways to Show the Earth’s Surface Section 1.3 • There are many different ways to show the Earth’s surface. • Globes • Photographs • Map Projections Ways to Show the Earth’s Surface Section 1.3 • GLOBES – Benefits: Accurate Shapes – Drawbacks: Too bulky to carry around • PHOTOGRAPHS/GPS – Benefits: Show large areas and many details – Drawbacks: Not specific enough or Inaccurate/Outdated • MAP PROJECTIONS – Benefits: Fairly Accurate, Convenient – Drawbacks: Distortions due to the difference in shapes Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Map Key – explains the symbols and shading on the map Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Compass Rose – part of a map that shows direction Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Cardinal Directions – North (N), South (S), East (E), and West (W) • Intermediate Directions – The directions that fall between the cardinal directions. Northwest (NW), Southwest (SW), Northeast (NE), and Southeast (SE) Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Locator Map – Locator maps may show a larger area than the main map or where the area on the map is located within the larger area. Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Scale Bar – shows how much space on the map represents a given distance on the land. Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Map Grid – imaginary lines placed on a map to help us determine location. Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Map Grids can be more complex. Latitude and longitude are another type of complex map grid. • Latitude – The distance north or south of the Equator. • Longitude – The distance east or west of the Prime Meridian. • Degrees – Units used to measure distance between the lines of latitude and longitude. Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Some important lines of latitude are: 0 degrees = Equator 23.5 degrees N = Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degrees S = Tropic of Capricorn Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • Some important lines of Longitude are: 0 degrees = Prime Meridian 180 degrees = International Date Line How do we know the difference between 0 degrees latitude and longitude? By the order in which the numbers are written. Ex.: 23.5 N, 0 Map Basics Sections 1.1 and 1.4 • The Equator divides the Earth into two hemispheres (Halves of the Earth). These are the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. • The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Types of Maps Section 1.5 • Physical Maps – A map that shows the natural features. • Political Maps - A map that shows political units. This could be boundaries between countries or states, even capitals and cities would be found on these maps. • Special Purpose Maps – Maps that show the location or distribution of human or physical features. Types of Maps Section 1.5 • Physical – Elevation : height above sea level Types of Maps Section 1.5 • Political Types of Maps Section 1.5 • Special Purpose Geography’s Five Themes Section 1.2 • Geographers ask 2 basic questions. – Where are things at? – Why are they there? • The five themes of geography help the geographers to answer those questions and categorize the information that they find. • The five themes are: Location, Place, Region, Movement, and Human-Environment Interaction Geography’s Five Themes Section 1.2 • Location – Where something is found. – Absolute Location – Exact position on Earth • Latitude and Longitude • Postal Address – Relative Location – Location of a place, relative to another place. A description of where something is located. • Mentioning landmarks • Distance from other cities Harrisburg – Absolute Location – 40 N, 76 W Relative Location – NE of Gettysburg or on the Susquehanna River Geography’s Five Themes Section 1.2 • Place – The mix of human and non-human features found at a location. – Hilly, Four Seasons, Many Rivers, 2nd Largest City in PA, Has been known for its steel production, Listed as one of the most livable cities in the world. Geography’s Five Themes Section 1.2 • Region – Area with one common characteristic – Climate, landforms, population, history, culture Geography’s Five Themes Section 1.2 • Movement – How people, goods, and ideas move from one place to another. – Physical Movement OR Mental Movement Geography’s Five Themes Section 1.2 • Human-Environment Interaction – How people affect the environment and how the environment affects them. Bibliography Chu, Gregory H., Susan Wiley. Hardwick, Donald G. Holtgrieve, Grant P. Wiggins, George F. Sabato, and Michael M. Yell. My World Geography. Boston, Mass: Pearson, 2011. Print.