# World Geography Core Concepts

```World Geography
Core Concepts
Geography Basics
Ways to Show the Earth’s Surface
Section 1.3
• There are many different ways to show the
Earth’s surface.
• Globes
• Photographs
• Map Projections
Ways to Show the Earth’s Surface
Section 1.3
• GLOBES
– Benefits: Accurate Shapes
– Drawbacks: Too bulky to carry around
• PHOTOGRAPHS/GPS
– Benefits: Show large areas and many
details
– Drawbacks: Not specific enough or
Inaccurate/Outdated
• MAP PROJECTIONS
– Benefits: Fairly Accurate, Convenient
– Drawbacks: Distortions due to the
difference in shapes
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Map Key – explains the symbols and shading
on the map
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Compass Rose – part of a map that shows
direction
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Cardinal Directions – North
(N), South (S), East (E), and
West (W)
• Intermediate Directions –
The directions that fall
between the cardinal
directions. Northwest (NW),
Southwest (SW), Northeast
(NE), and Southeast (SE)
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Locator Map – Locator maps may show a
larger area than the main map or where the
area on the map is located within the larger
area.
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Scale Bar – shows how much space on the
map represents a given distance on the land.
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Map Grid –
imaginary lines
placed on a map
to help us
determine
location.
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Map Grids can be more complex. Latitude and longitude are
another type of complex map grid.
• Latitude – The distance north or south of the Equator.
• Longitude – The distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.
• Degrees – Units used to measure distance between the lines
of latitude and longitude.
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Some important lines of latitude are:
0 degrees = Equator
23.5 degrees N = Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees S = Tropic of Capricorn
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• Some important lines of
Longitude are:
0 degrees = Prime Meridian
180 degrees = International Date
Line
How do we know the difference
between 0 degrees latitude and
longitude?
By the order in which
the numbers are
written. Ex.: 23.5 N, 0
Map Basics
Sections 1.1 and 1.4
• The Equator divides
the Earth into two
hemispheres
(Halves of the
Earth). These are
the Northern and
Southern
Hemispheres.
• The Prime Meridian
divides the Earth
into the Eastern and
Western
Hemispheres.
Types of Maps
Section 1.5
• Physical Maps – A map that shows the natural
features.
• Political Maps - A map that shows political
units. This could be boundaries between
countries or states, even capitals and cities
would be found on these maps.
• Special Purpose Maps – Maps that show the
location or distribution of human or physical
features.
Types of Maps
Section 1.5
• Physical
– Elevation :
height above
sea level
Types of Maps
Section 1.5
• Political
Types of Maps
Section 1.5
• Special Purpose
Geography’s Five Themes
Section 1.2
• Geographers ask 2 basic questions.
– Where are things at?
– Why are they there?
• The five themes of geography help the geographers to
answer those questions and categorize the
information that they find.
• The five themes are: Location, Place, Region,
Movement, and Human-Environment Interaction
Geography’s Five Themes
Section 1.2
• Location – Where something is found.
– Absolute Location – Exact position on Earth
• Latitude and Longitude
– Relative Location – Location of a place, relative to another
place. A description of where something is located.
• Mentioning landmarks
• Distance from other cities
Harrisburg –
Absolute Location – 40 N, 76 W
Relative Location – NE of Gettysburg
or on the Susquehanna River
Geography’s Five Themes
Section 1.2
• Place – The mix of human and non-human
features found at a location.
– Hilly, Four Seasons, Many Rivers, 2nd Largest City in
PA, Has been known for its steel production, Listed
as one of the most livable cities in the world.
Geography’s Five Themes
Section 1.2
• Region – Area with one common characteristic
– Climate, landforms, population, history, culture
Geography’s Five Themes
Section 1.2
• Movement – How people, goods, and ideas
move from one place to another.
– Physical Movement OR Mental Movement
Geography’s Five Themes
Section 1.2
• Human-Environment Interaction – How
people affect the environment and how the
environment affects them.
Bibliography
Chu, Gregory H., Susan Wiley. Hardwick, Donald
G. Holtgrieve, Grant P. Wiggins, George F.
Sabato, and Michael M. Yell. My World
Geography. Boston, Mass: Pearson, 2011.
Print.
```