# Geographer`s Tools Power Point 1

### Thinking Globally

“Geo”-earth

“graphy”-to write

Geographers ask “where” things are and “why” they are there

Geography-The study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth.

### Geography

Physical Geography-focus on natural environment.

Human Geography-focus on people.

The earth’s natural phenomena, like soil, plants, climate and topography.

This is what most think of when they think

Geography.

Processes, and locations of the earth’s human creations and their interactions.

### Looking at the earth

Continents

County

State/province/territory

Islands

Oceans

### The Science of Mapmaking

Cartographer-A person who makes maps

How do you know where things are without a map?

### Maps and Map Symbols

Scale

Compass Rose

Symbols

Title

Key/Legend

Color

Maps

Maps-a two dimensional or flat scale model of the earth’s surface

Globe-scale model of the earth

Great Circle Route-shortest distance between 2 points on the earth

## Types of Maps

During the course of the year we will look at all types of maps, here are a few:

Thematic

Flow-line

Chloropleth

Dot Density

Proportional

Symbol thematic

Reference

Isoline Thematic

Cognative or mental maps

## Map Projections

Projections are the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth’s surface to a flat map.

Think of a projection of making the skin of an orange lay flat.

Four types of distortions can occur:

1. shape of an area is distorted.

2. distance between two points may increase or decrease.

3. relative size of different areas may be altered.

4. Direction from one place to another can be distorted.

## Classes of Maps

Cylindrical (compromise)-shows true direction but loses distance.

Planar-shows true direction and examines the earth from one point.

Conic-cone over the earth, loses direction but keeps distance intact.

Oval-combination of cylindrical and conic

### Contemporary Tools for Mapping

Geographic

Information

Systems (GIS)

• Information on a location is stored in layers.

• Layers can be viewed individually or combined.

Remote Sensing

• Remote sensing satellites scan the earth.

Global Positioning

Systems (GPS)

• Accurately determines the precise position of something on earth.

• Originally designed for aircraft and ships, now available for autos.

Put yourself in groups of 3. HURRY! DO THIS

BEFORE THE TARDY BELL RINGS!

What do you see in the picture?

What do you think is "different" in the picture?

Does this look like everywhere else in the world?

What affects the “look” of this place?

Is the location of this place important?

If I were trying to get to this place, how I might I travel there?

### Warm-UP

Describe Manvel High School using the 5 Themes of

Geography- there should be a characteristic for each

Theme

Five Themes of Geography

Location

Human/Environment

Interactions

Regions

Place

Movement

# Location

How do Geographers know where things are?

Absolute Location : refers to a position on the global grid.

Relative Location : a location as described in relation to places around it.

Absolute or Mathematical Location

Mathematical location-location described by meridians and parallels, otherwise known as latitude and longitude.

Absolute location is unique for each place on earth.

The absolute location of the ACC radio tower.

Latitude: 29-24'02'' N

Longitude: 095-12'14'' W

### Latitude and Longitude

Meridians or longitude

Parallels or Latitude

Prime Meridian

GMT-Greenwich Mean Time

International Date line

Equator

Hemispheres

### Place-Unique location of a feature

Why is each point on Earth Unique?

Four ways to identify a place on earth by it’s location.

1. Place name

Toponym or name to distinguish them from others.

Some names reflect history—New York

Some reflect the founder-Alvin-Alvin Morgan

Some are reflective-Three Rivers

### Site

.

2. Site- physical character of a place

Climate

Topography soil water resources

Vegetation elevation

### Situation

3. Situation-location of a place relative to another place.

This characteristic refers to relative location.

Human

Environment

Interaction

People and their environment.

### Environmental Modification

Changes to environment to suit people.

### Movement

Interconnections between areas

What connects people and places

How do people move from one place

To another?

### Regions

The organization of the earth’s surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas.

### Types of regions

There are three types of regions:

1.

2.

3.

Formal region

Functional Region

Vernacular or perceptual region

# Formal Region

Other wise known as uniform or homogeneous region.

Everyone within the region shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.

Creation of a state or province is a formal region

## Formal regions

The North America Wheat Belt is a formal region.

Persons in the USA who vote Republican or

Democratic .

## Functional Region

Functional or Nodal Regions are organized around a core, node or focal point.

Geographers use functional regions to display information about economic areas.

Newspaper circulation

TV Station reception area

People in our are who follow the Texans.

### Functional region

The core area has distinct characteristics that lessen in intensity as one travels to the periphery, or the region’s margins.

Traveling West from Denver persons will venture to the periphery of Salt Lake City.

### Perceptual or Vernacular Regions

They are places that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.

The reflect feelings and images more than any objective reality.

### Regions

Emerging mega regions of the USA

### Globalization

A force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.

Human activities are rarely confined to one location.

Multinational Corporation-located in more than one country. Can affect the culture of other nations.

### Distribution

Distribution -the arrangement of a feature in space

Density -frequency in which something occurs

.

### Distribution, cont.

Concentration-the extent of a features spread over space.

Are they clustered (close together)?

Are they dispersed (far apart) ?

Concentration is not the same as density. You can have the same density but different concentrations. Think housing in communities.

### Distribution, cont.

Pattern-the geometric arrangement of objects in space.

Some are geometric-houses on a street are linear.

Some are random and irregular

## China

### Spatial interaction

Historically-settlers, explorers created interaction between locations

Today- Airplanes, computers, Television, internet

Distance Decay-the farther away one group is from another group, the less likely they are to interact with each other.

Electronic communication

Has lessened this concept.

### Diffusion of culture and economy

North America, Western Europe and Japan are the centers of global culture and economy.