Mustang Minute O What makes a good speech? What should a presenter do in order to be convincing and powerful? Claim O Often called a “thesis O Example: statement” or “main idea” of your paper O Stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a person to hold. O Ask yourself, “What is the/my point?” O “The end of segregation in the South was inevitable.” O “Oreos should be the national cookie.” O “All teenagers should be allowed to carry backpacks.” Reasons + Evidence Reasons •Support of your claim, •Tell why you think what you think. •A rough outline of your essay: the claim and the reasons you will give for supporting it. (Thesis much) •Example: •Claim: Flight attendants who suffer from diseases shown to be connected to inhaling secondhand smoke on airlines should have the costs of their treatment and disability covered by tobacco companies. •Reason: Tobacco companies have concealed evidence that nicotine causes cancer. Studies show that secondhand smoke can be damaging. •REASONS ARE NOT ENOUGH! Evidence O Show specific evidence supporting your reasons. O Concrete evidence: O O O O O facts Statistics First-hand stories Examples Expert testimony O Explain how this research supports your claim and reasons Counter-Claim O Anticipate and O How do I do this? O Do some research. It may seem like no one would disagree with your position but someone probably has or will. O Talk with a friend or with your teacher. address counterclaims or objections. O “Counter” means O against. O Ask yourself: “How might someone who O disagrees with me O respond to my points.” For example: You may claim “Cats make the best pets because they are self-cleaning and independent.” Imagine someone saying, “Cats do not make the best pets. They are dirty and needy.” How would you respond or prove them different? The Rhetorical Triangle O Remember: O Ethos = Expert on topic O Logos = Logic, Facts/Statistics, Common knowledge O Pathos = Emotions (Pity), Experiences Speech to the Troops at Tilbury O Delivered on August 19, 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces assembled in preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada. O The Armada had been drive out of the Strait of Dover in the Battle of Gravelines eleven days earlier, and by now rounded Scotland on its way home, but troops were still being held at the ready in case the Spanish army decided to invade from Dunkirk. Two days later the troops were discharged. O The Queen left her bodyguards and went before the assembled troops with only an escort of 6 advisors. 1. Speech to the Troops at Tilbury: Partner Analysis Read through each phrase/sentence Select a different color crayon that out-loud with your partner. 2. Finish identifying Ethos, Pathos, and Logos using 3 different crayons. O ETHOS: how does the speaker establish themselves as an expert? Do they mention anyone else who could be an expert? O LOGOS how does the speaker use facts/statistics/common knowledge to support their claim? Are they effective? Why or why not? O PATHOS: what emotions is the speaker trying to make the audience feel? How does the speaker accomplish this? 3. When you underline something, explain in the margin with your pen how/why that is an example of Ethos, Pathos, or Logos. 4. you have NOT YET used. 5. As a partnership, O Identify the CLAIM. Why do you think so? How do you know? Does anyone disagree? Why? O What REASONS does the speaker provide for this CLAIM? O What EVIDENCE does the speaker provide? Is this convincing EVIDENCE? O Is there a COUNTER-CLAIM? Why do you think so? How do you know? Does anyone disagree? Why? 6. Answer the questions on the back of the worksheet in complete sentences. Be sure to fill in the space provided and be specific. *If you are off task (talking to another group, discussing something not related to the article, etc.) you will be assigned a second article to analyze. Speech to the Troops at Tilbury: Let’s Analyze O O O O O O Queen Elizabeth I is sending her men to fight the Spanish Armada. What do you know about the audience based on the information in the speech? How does she take the audience into account? How does Queen Elizabeth I use the audience’s faith and belief in God as a way to convince them to believe and agree with her? Why is it a good idea for her to remind them of her divine right as a ruler before sending them into battle? At one point she says that she is going to fight beside them, and then she says she will not. Explain what she means and what she is doing here. How is she manipulating her audience? Identify an appeal to pathos. How is it effective? One appeal to logos she makes is when she reminds them that she will be paying them money to fight. To which audience is she specifically speaking when she mentions this? One effective rhetorical device in this speech is her manipulation of diction. Provide one example of effective word choice and discuss how this word/phrase impacts the quality of the argument. Speech to the Troops at Tilbury: Let’s Discuss O This is a successful speech. Why? O What is Queen Elizabeth’s Claim? What is she trying to convince her audience of? O Does she reference any type of Counter-Claim? Why or why not? O Elizabeth uses all of the appeals – logos, pathos, and ethos – to convince all of her listeners to fight for her from the loyal follower to the greedy mercenary. How? O The tone shifts throughout the selection. Where? But more importantly, why?