Intro to Ethos, Pathos, Logos - Anoka

How to Win an Argument:
Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Snell: Debate I
What is Rhetoric?
 Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing
effectively (Webster's Definition).
– According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in
each particular case, to see the available
means of persuasion." He described three main
forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
In order to be a more effective debater, you must understand these three
terms. You will better understand their meanings which will make your
speaking more persuasive.
Three Forms of Rhetoric…
 Ethos
 Logos
 Pathos
Ethos (Credibility)
Ethos is all about credibility. We believe people
we respect have behaved ethically.
 We tend to believe people whom we respect.
 Credibility of Self
 Credibility of Source
Ethos Example:
How does Cher
build or lose her
credibility in this
Watch this television ad from 1949.
How do the ad’s creators appeal to ethos for
their audience in 1949?
How do we view this ad differently in 2014?
Logos (Logical)
 Logos: the logic used to support a claim;
the facts and statistics used to help support
the argument.
– Persuading by the use of reasoning.
– An effective and persuasive reason that
supports your ideas.
Logos Example:
 Idea: Students should be allowed to use cell
phones during school hours.
List three supporting facts and/or statistics that
will support the aforementioned idea.
Logos Example:
What strategies do the rhetoricians use to appeal to
How do visual elements of the video emphasize the
use of logic?
Pathos (Emotional)
 Pathos: persuading by appealing to the
audience’s emotions. Emotional appeals,
are used to persuade. Language choice
affects the audience's emotional response,
and emotional appeal can effectively be
used to enhance an argument.
 How? Anecdotal stories, loaded words,
emotional statistics
Pathos Example:
How does Matthew
character appeal to
the audience’s emotions?
Isn’t debate just arguing?
 Argument, Def. 1: An emotional, verbal
fight in which people become angry, bitter,
or dissatisfied with the person they are
having a “conversation.”
Isn’t debate just arguing?
 Argument, Def. 2: A stance taken in
support of an issue that can be supported,
verified, or upheld by others.
 Debate: Process of two or more people
reaching a consensus. Both parties must
come to a mutual agreement.
Resolution Analysis
 Whereas “junk food” is detrimental to the
health of students, and Whereas, “sugar
highs” cause students to lose focus in the
classroom, and whereas, it is the duty of the
schools to educate students in all facets of
life, be it resolved that the sale of all junk
food on school property shall be prohibited.
Resolution Analysis
 Whereas a three month summer vacation is too
long for students to retain information learned at
school, and whereas many school districts have
already successfully adopted the Year Round
format of alternate blocks of nine weeks of school
followed by two weeks of vacation, be it resolved
that Minnesota, in order to better meet the
academic needs of its students, should adopt a
uniform, statewide, year-round school year