SSUSH8 - LessonPaths

SSUSH8: The student will explain the
relationship between growing northsouth divisions and westward
a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in
American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat
Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd
Garrison, Frederick Douglas, and the Grimke sisters).
b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of
slavery in western states and territories.
What was the role of slavery in the Southern
• The South was mainly agricultural with little
• The main crops during the mid 1800s were rice and
cotton, both which required extensive labor to produce.
• Though slavery was prevalent in the South, the majority
of Southerners did not own slaves.
What were the results of Nat Turner’s
Revolt (1831)?
 Slave Codes put restrictions on slaves, preventing them from
learning to read and write.
 Nat Turner, a Virginia slave, believed God had chosen him to
lead a revolt.
 Turner and his followers killed more than 50 people before
being caught.
 Turner’s Revolt led to states
passing even stricter codes
and restrictions on
Who were some of the leading abolitionists of
the period?
• Grimke Sisters: South Carolina sisters who moved north to
promote the abolitionist movement.
• William Lloyd Garrison became one of the country’s
leading abolitionist, publishing the pro-abolitionist
newspaper the Liberator.
• Frederick Douglass, a former slave, published the
newspaper the North Star and an autobiography.
What was the purpose of the Missouri
• In 1819 the U.S. consisted of 11 free and 11 slave states.
• Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state in 1819.
• To off set the imbalance, Maine applied for statehood as a free
• The MC granted statehood to both and set a boundary in
which areas slavery could expand into. 36 30 latitude line.
Why would the South agree
not to expand slavery into
the Unorganized Louisiana
c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the
emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the
role of John C. Calhoun and development of
d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot
e. Explain the Compromise of 1850.
How was the Nullification Crisis an
example of sectionalism?
• In the early 1800s South
Carolina’s economy began
to weaken in part due to
high government tariffs, or
taxes, on imports.
• In 1828 Congress passed
another tariff, which many
called the Tariff of
• South Carolina threatened
to secede over the high
Why would tariffs hurt
Southern states like South
Carolina more than Northern
How was the Nullification Crisis an
example of sectionalism?
 Vice-President John C.
Calhoun, from South
Carolina, supported the
idea of nullification, or the
right of the states to
declare federal laws null, or
 He declared that states had
this power of nullification
because the states had
created the federal
How was the Nullification Crisis an
example of sectionalism?
• In 1832, Congress passed yet another tariff.
• In November 1832, South Carolina declared the tariffs null,
and refused to pay the federal government’s taxes on
How was the Nullification Crisis an
example of sectionalism?
• President Andrew Jackson ordered a warship to Charleston,
viewing the nullification as a treasonous act.
• To ease tensions, Congress passed a bill that gradually lowered
• South Carolina repealed its nullification of tariffs and the issue
was temporarily solved.
How was the Nullification Crisis
an example of sectionalism?
What caused the US to go to war with
• James Polk became President
in 1845, promising to annex
Texas and Oregon.
• The U.S. annexes Texas,
causing a boundary dispute
with Mexico.
• Polk ordered the army into the
disputed area-Mexican troops
open fire on the Americans.
• Polk then declared war on
Mexico, claiming they were the
What caused the US to go to war with
• The American army is ordered into Mexico,
and out to California.
• Before the troops can reach California, a
group of American settlers revolt and take
the area naming it the Bear Flag Republic.
• In 1847, the U.S. Army enters Mexico City
causing the Mexicans to surrender ending
the war.
What did the US gain from winning the
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war, giving the
U.S. a vast amount of land in the Southwest.
• The U.S. now stretched
from the Atlantic to the
Pacific Ocean.
Why would this treaty cause problems
with the Slavery issue?
How was the Wilmot Proviso connected
to the Mexican War?
• Proposed in 1846, that any territory gained from
Mexico would not be allowed to have slaves.
• The proposal upset Southerners, and though it
passed in the House, the Senate refused to vote
on it.
• The Wilmot Proviso continued north-south
sectionalism over the slavery issue.
Why was the Compromise of 1850
 To counter the Wilmot Proviso and to ease tension, a
proposal was made to allow the new territories to decide for
themselves on the slavery issue, an idea called popular
 California applied for statehood in
1849, threatening to break the
balance of free and slave states.
 Henry Clay proposed a resolution
which became known as the
Compromise of 1850.
Why was the Compromise of 1850
• Though the Compromise initially had little support, it was
passed, by dividing it into smaller bills, allowing Congress to
vote on each issue separately easing the tension over