Nullification Crisis

SSUSH8 The student will explain the
relationship between growing northsouth divisions and westward expansion.
• a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in
American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat
Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd
Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).
• b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of
slavery in western states and territories.
• c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of
states’ rights ideology; include the role of John C.
Calhoun and development of sectionalism.
• d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.
• e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of
territorial expansion and population growth.
Page 1
Essential Question
How did slavery come to be a significant issue in American
politics? (pg. 248-256)
Include the uprising of Nat Turner and the rise of the Abolition
movement via William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas, and the Grimke
Create a chart like the one below in which you plot the names of the individuals
above and their contribution to making slavery a significant political issue
Nat Turner
William Lloyd Garrison
Frederick Douglas
Grimke Sisters
Slavery and the Southern Economy
• The South was mainly agricultural with very little
• The main crops during the mid 1800s were rice
and cotton, both which required extensive labor
to produce
• Though slavery was prevalent in the South, the
vast majority of Southerners did not own slaves
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
• Nat Turner was a slave in
Southampton County, Virginia.
• Believed that God had chosen him
to free the slaves.
• In 1831, he led an uprising in which
he killed his owner and 60 other
whites before being captured.
• In pursuit of Nat, the white bounty
hunters killed 100 slaves trying to
capture Nat and his followers
• Significance: following this slave
uprising some southern states
passed stricter slave “codes” or
laws. This was looked down upon
by Abolitionists in the North.
Widening the difference between
the North and South regions.
• Grimke Sisters: South Carolina sisters who
moved north to promote the abolitionist
• William Lloyd Garrison became one of the
country’s leading abolitionist, publishing the proabolitionist newspaper the Liberator. He
believed in complete emancipation
• Fredrick Douglas, a former
slave from Maryland,
published the abolitionist
newspaper the North Star
and an autobiography
SSUSH8 The student will
explain the relationship
between growing north-south
divisions and westward
b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of
slavery in western states and territories.
Page 2
Essential Question
How did the Missouri Compromise affect the admittance of new
states to the Union? (pg. 222-223)
What were the new criteria by which states were admitted?
First - Identify the Missouri Compromise [ define the Missouri
Compromise…e.g. What was it?]
Next – Describe the criteria by which new States were admitted into
the Union per the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise = …blah blah blah…blah.
Criteria for Admittance = States were admitted into the Union…blah blah
blah…blah & blah.
The Missouri Compromise
• In 1819 the U.S. consisted of 11 free and 11 slave states
• Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state in 1819
• To off set the imbalance Maine applied for statehood as
a free state
• The Missouri Compromise granted statehood to both
free and slave states and set a boundary for which areas
slavery could
expand in to
Why would the South agree
not to expand slavery into
the Unorganized Louisiana
Missouri Compromise
• An agreement passed in 1820
between the pro-slavery and
anti-slavery factions in the
Congress, involving the
regulation of slavery in the
western territories. It prohibited
slavery in the former Louisiana
Territory north of the parallel
36°30' north except within the
boundaries of the proposed
state of Missouri. To keep the
balance, Maine was admitted as
a free state in response to
Missouri entering as a slave
SSUSH8 The student will
explain the relationship
between growing north-south
divisions and westward
c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the
emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the
role of John C. Calhoun and development of
d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot
e. Explain the Compromise of 1850.
Essential Question
• What was the Nullification Crisis and what role did it play in the rise of
“states rights” ideology? (pg. 230-232)
• What role did John C. Calhoun play in the development of sectionalism?
(pg. 230-232)
• Create a Flow Chart on Page 3
[Essential Question Goes Here]
Beginning / Causes
•Write you EQ @
the top of Page 3
•Your Flow Chart
should have 3 parts
•Use the Notes in the
next slides to fill-in
your chart
•On the back of
Page 3:
Middle / Crisis
Effects / Outcomes
•Define “Sectionalism”
•Explain Calhoun’s role
in growing
between the North &
Development of Sectionalism
• Sectionalism is defined as loyalty to the
interests of one's own region or section of
the country, rather than to the country as a
• Sectionalism in the U.S. increased steadily
– The North, without slavery, industrialized,
urbanized and built prosperous farms.
– The South concentrated on plantation
agriculture based on slave labor, together with
subsistence farming for the poor whites.
Nullification Crisis
• In the early 1800s
South Carolina’s
economy began to
weaken in part due to
high government tariffs,
or taxes, on imports
• In 1828 Congress
passed another tariff,
which many called the
Tariff of Abominations
• South Carolina
threatened to secede
from the U.S. over the
high tariffs
Why would tariffs hurt Southern
states like South Carolina more
than Northern States?
Nullification Crisis
• Vice-President John C.
Calhoun, from South
Carolina, supported the
idea of nullification, or
the right of the states to
declare federal laws
null, or void
• He declared that states
had this power of
nullification because the
states had created the
federal government
Nullification Crisis
• In 1832, Congress passed yet another tariff
• In November 1832, South Carolina declared
the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null, and
refused to pay the federal government’s
taxes on imports
Nullification Crisis
• President Andrew Jackson ordered a warship to
Charleston, viewing the nullification as a treasonous act
• To ease tensions, Congress passed a bill that gradually
lowered tariffs
• South Carolina repealed its nullification of tariffs and the
issue was temporarily solved
How was the Nullification Crisis
an example of sectionalism?
John C. Calhoun on Nullification Crisis
• South Carolina
representative who wrote
and spoke of the
Nullification Crisis between
States and the National
• Significance: This is the
first time that State’s Rights
had been brought to the
forefront (which later is used
as justification in the Civil
War). Differences between
one region of the United
States and another are
becoming apparent.
Nullification Crisis
• The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis
during the presidency of Andrew Jackson
created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of
• This ordinance declared by the power of the
State that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832
were unconstitutional and therefore null and
void within the sovereign boundaries of South
• The controversial and highly protective Tariff of
1828 (known as the "Tariff of Abominations")
was enacted into law during the presidency of
John Quincy Adams. The tariff was opposed in
the South. Its opponents expected that the
election of Jackson as President would result in
the tariff being significantly reduced.
SSUSH8 The student will
explain the relationship
between growing north-south
divisions and westward
d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot
e. Explain the Compromise of 1850.
Expansion into Texas
• Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in
Texas region
• Native American and Mexican government
had had disputes over the area. Having
American citizens in the area was a
security attempt by Mexico
• Stephen F. Austin established the first
colony in Texas.
Texas Fights for Independence
• Anglo Settlers in Texas rebel against Santa Anna’s
oppressive government and declare their
independence from Mexico.
• Anglo troops are massacred at the Alamo
• “Remember the Alamo” was the battle cry after this
• After the victory at San Jacinto River under the
leadership of Sam Houston, Texas became the
Republic of Texas. “The Lone Star” Republic
• It remained its own country for 7 years when it was
annexed into the U.S.
• The annexation process was part of the reason the
U.S. goes to war with Mexico.
The battle of the Alamo
Mexican War 1846-1848
• Three Reasons that the U.S. and
Mexico went to war*
– Boundary Disputes in the Texas Area
• Mexico believed the boundary should be north
of the Rio Grande
• U.S. believed the boundary was at the Rio
– Texas joining the United States (being
– Bad relations between governments
War With Mexico
• James Polk become
President in 1845, promising
to annex Texas, and Oregon.
• The U.S. annexes Texas,
causing a boundary dispute
with Mexico.
• Polk ordered the army into
the disputed area where
Mexican troops opened fire
on the Americans
• Polk then declared war on
Mexico, claiming they were
the aggressors
War With Mexico
• The American army is
ordered into Mexico, and
out to California
• Before the troops can
reach California, a group
of American settlers revolt
and take the area naming
it the Bear Flag Republic
• In 1847, the U.S. Army
enters Mexico City
causing the Mexicans to
surrender and ending the
America Claims the Spoils
of War*
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
• This was an agreement with Mexico that
– The boarder of Texas was the Rio Grande
– They also Ceded (gave up) the areas of New
Mexico and California to the U.S.
– U.S. agreed to pay $15 Million for the
Mexican cession which included present day
California, Nevada, New Mexico , Utah and
most of Arizona, parts of Colorado and
War With Mexico
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the
war, giving the U.S. a vast amount of land
in the Southwest
• The U.S. now stretched
from the Atlantic to the
Pacific Ocean
Why would this treaty cause problems with the
Slavery issue?
Gasden Purchase
President Franklin Pierce
$10 Million to Mexico
This area was at lower elevation
that could be used for the
Transcontinental Railroad*
• This established the present day
boarders of the Continental U.S.
California Gold Rush*
• Sutter’s Mill
• Discovered in 1848, which caused many people
to Rush to California in 1849
• Nicknamed “49ers” because of the year
• People would travel in the following ways:
– either across the country on land
– sail to the southern tip of south America and upward
to the coast of California
– By the Atlantic Ocean to the isthmus of Panama
and cross then continue up by boat on the Pacific
Ocean to California
Wilmot Proviso
• Proposed in 1846, that any territory gained
from Mexico would not be allowed to have
• The proposal upset Southerners, and
though it passed in the House, the Senate
refused to vote on it
• The Wilmot Proviso continued a northsouth sectionalism divided over the
slavery issue
Wilmot Proviso
• To counter the Wilmot Proviso and to ease
tension, a proposal was made to allow the
new territories to decide for themselves on
the slavery issue, an idea called popular
• California applied for statehood in 1849,
threatening to break the balance of free
and slave states
• Henry Clay proposed a resolution which
became known as the Compromise of
Compromise of 1850 (Henry Clay)
• Abolished the slave trade in the District of
Columbia, but slavery is still permitted.
• Obligated Congress to create became the
Fugitive Slave Law.
• Admitted California as a free state
• Separately organized the territories of Utah and
New Mexico without restrictions on slavery. The
inhabitants of these places would decide upon
slavery when they applied to be admitted as
• Texas would relinquish the land in dispute to
Mexico. They would be given 10 million dollars in
return as compensation that could be used to pay
off its debt to Mexico.
Compromise of 1850
• Though the Compromise initially had little support, it was
passed, by dividing it into smaller bills, allowing Congress
to vote on each issue separately easing the tension, for
the time being, over slavery