Rhetorical Devices*Ethos, Pathos, Logos, and Kairos

AP English
Ethical Appeals
Can mean two things:
Convincing by the character of the author. We
tend to believe people whom we respect. One
of the central problems of argumentation is to
project an impression to the reader that you are
someone worth listening to, in other words
making yourself as the author into an authority
on the subject of the paper, as well as someone
who is likable and worthy of respect.
Doing what is right.
#1--Getting the audience to believe something on
author’s reputation:
" Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my
work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the
criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would
have little time for anything other than such
correspondence in the course of the day, and I
would have no time for constructive work…”MLK “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
#2—Doing what is right:
“And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your
country can do for you — ask what you can do for
your country.”-JFK “Peace Corp Speech”
Logical Appeals
What makes sense. Using reasoning (both
deductive and inductive).
One of the most common types of appeals in
persuasion and argument. Necessity to use
reasoning to support your claims.
Student: “I’m hot.” Teacher: “Well, why don’t
you take your jacket off?”
“If you like apples, you like cinnamon, and you
like things that are sweet, you must enjoy apple
Pathetic Appeals
Persuading by appealing to the reader's
"A brilliant young woman I know was asked once to
support her argument in favor of social welfare. She
named the most powerful source imaginable: the look
in a mother's face when she cannot feed her children.
Can you look that hungry child in the eyes? See the
blood on his feet from working barefoot in the cotton
fields. Or do you ask his baby sister with her belly
swollen from hunger if she cares about her daddy's
work ethics?"
(Nate Parker as Henry Lowe in The Great Debaters,
Donating to a homeless person often uses this appeal
Students are often drawn to a fight because of this