04 Leviticus 8-10 The Levitical Priesthood

The Leviticus Priesthood
Relevant Scriptures:
Exodus 28:31-35
Exodus 29:5
Exodus 39:22-26
Leviticus 8 – 9
Hierarchical Society
• In the days of the Tabernacle,
Israel divided into three
– The High Priest
– The Priesthood
– The Congregation
The Priesthood
• Necessity for appointment of priests based on the fact the
people were sinners could not come before God
1. Object of the priestly office was to minister to God on
behalf of the people (Heb 5: 1-2)
2. All believers are priests (1 Pet 2:5,9; Heb 10)
The Levites
• Priesthood formed from men of Aaron’s family
• Sons: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar succeeded Aaron as
High Priest
• Other families of tribe of Levi were
called to the priesthood:
– Merari: Num 3:36 responsible for
Nadab & Abihu
the of heavy boards, sockets
– Gershom: Num 3:25 responsible for the curtains
– Kohathites: Num 3:31 responsible for carrying the holy
– Women were not given service in the Tabernacle
Aaron and his Sons
• Pure Grace!
• Aaron not chosen on merit; God gave it to Aaron
– Ex 28:1 “Take…Him,”
– Not a question but a command
– God did not “Ask Aaron if he would like to be the High
– God paid for us; we are His Servants
• We are “Bond slaves of Jesus”
• Would we have chosen Levi’s Family as priesthood?
– Gen 34:30 Jacob said Levi “troubled me…stink…”
– If perfection required, tribe of Levi far from it
– If God demanded some standard or measure to be eligible
for salvation, none of us would or could be saved
The Priests
• Ex 29:4 Ceremonial bath never had to be
repeated; Jn 13:10
• Ex 29: 5 – 9 Distinguished from the rest;
1 Pet 2:9
• Ex 29: 10 – 25 Set apart to God’s service;
Ex 29: 20
• Ex 29: 26 – 27 Physical needs to be provided
The Priestly Garments
• Vestments Common to all Priests:
The Turban or Mitre: Ex 28: 36 – 38
The Girdle: Ex 28: 8
The Sash: Ex 28: 39
The Linen Breeches: Ex 28: 42
• Vestments Unique to the High Priest
The Ephod: Ex 28: 5 – 14
The Robe of the Ephod: Ex 28: 31 - 35
The Breastplate: Ex 28: 15 – 30
The Crown
Vestments Common to All Priests
• The Turban or Mitre (Mitznefet): High Priest’s
was much larger; wound to form a broad,
flat-topped turban; priests were cone-shaped
called a migbahat
• The Girdle or Tunic (Ketonet): made of pure linen,
covering entire body from neck to
feet, sleeves reaching the wrists;
high priest tunic embroidered
• The Sash (Avnet): High Priest
was fine linen “embroidered
work” in purple, blue and
scarlet; priests’ were white,
twined linen
• The Linen Breeches (Michasayim): linen pants reaching from the
waist to the knees “to cover their nakedness”
Vestments of the High Priest
• The Ephod: a richly embroidered vest or apron with two onyx
engraved gemstones on the
shoulders, on which were
engraved the names of the tribes
of Israel
• The Robe of the Ephod (Me’il):
a sleeveless, blue robe, lower
hem fringed with small golden
bells alternating with pomegranate
shaped tassels in blue, purple
and scarlet
• The Breastplate (Hoshen): with twelve gems, each engraved with
the names of the tribes of Israel; a pouch in which he probably
carried the Urim and Thummin; was fastened to the Ephod
• The Crown (Tzitz): a gold plate inscribed with “Holy unto YHWG;”
was attached to front of the Turban so that it rested on forehead
Levitical Priest Garment
The Ephod
The Girdle
The Breastplate
The Robe of the
• The Turban or Mitre
• The Sash
• The Linen Breeches
The Great or High Priest
The Breastplate of Judgment
Sardus: predominantly
Judah (Praise)
Jesus’ lineage; Lion of
Judah representing blood
sacrifice of Christ
Topaz: brilliant yellow;
means to seek
Issachar (Reward)
A Cheerful People:
represents cheerfulness,
having received a reward
for diligent seeking
Carbuncle: glittering jewel
of unknown color
Zebulun (Dwelling)
Served as a haven for ships
Gen 49:13;
Emerald: sea green
Ruben (See a Son)
Like troubled seas –
unstable, very sinful
Sapphire: 2nd hardest
Simeon (Hearing)
Hard; ruthless
Diamond: hardest of
Gad (A Troop)
Great Warriors (1 Chron
The Breastplate of Judgment
Ligure: characteristics are
Ephraim (Very Fruitful)
Youngest son of Joseph
Agate: Reflects beauty
only when split; semitranslucent
Manasseh (Forgetting)
Tribe of Manasseh was
divided; oldest son of
Amethyst: Purple
Benjamin (Son of my Right
Smallest tribe; a warring
tribe. Christ is Son of the
Father’s right hand
Beryl: to break of subdue
Dan (Judge)
Led Israel to Idolatry
(Judges 17: 30-31)
Onyx: Fire-like, very
brilliant and precious
Asher (Blessed)
(Gen 49: 20)
Jasper: Clear; sometimes
bright yellow
Naphtali (My Wrestling)
Freedom Loving (Gen 49:
Leviticus 8: Consecration of Priestly Service
Moses now to carry out instructions of Exodus 28 & 29
1-4: Ritual Performed before the People (ekklesia)
5-6: Washing with Water; Mt 3: 13 - 16
7-9: Adorning with Priestly Garments
10-13: Anoint with Oil; 1 Samuel 16: 13
14-17: Sin Offering for Purification
18-21: Burnt Offering
22-29: Fellowship or Ordination Offering
30: More Anointing with Oil
31-36: Seven Days of Preparation; BBQ at Tent of Meeting!
Leviticus 9: Ordination of the Priests
Eighth day follows the seven of Lev 8
Bull calf Sin Offering for Purification
Ram Burnt offering for Propitiation
V 22 – 24: How cool is the conclusion to Lev 9?
– Glorious demonstration of the presence and power of the
Angel of the Lord among His people
– Offerings & priests accepted
– Glory of the Lord seen by all
– Everything seems perfect; nothing could go wrong
Leviticus 10: Nadab & Abihu
• Legacy of Great Spiritual Experiences, saw first hand:
– All miracles God performed associated with the Exodus
– Voice of God and saw fire, lightning, smoke and felt
thunder and earthquake at Mt Sinai
– Exodus 24: 1 – 2 Went with Moses, Aaron and seventy
elders for a special meeting with God on Mt Sinai
– Exodus 24: 9 – 11 Where they saw the God of Israel…and
they ate and drank
Leviticus 10: Nadab & Abihu
• So What?
• Same fire that consumed the sacrifices, consumed
Aaron’s sons, Nadab and Abihu
• Disobedience is Sin; Sin ultimately results in Death
• God is loving and merciful, patient, slow to anger…
• He is a consuming fire, fatal to the sinner
• Does the detail and precision of God’s instruction
really matter? Ask Nadab and Abihu; they added to
God’s word
• Do not add to God’s Word ; obey it.
Leviticus 10: Nadab & Abihu
• Why were Nadab and Abihu consumed?
– Based on Verse 9; Some allege drunkenness but
seems unlikely
– Verse 3: Moses’ explanation
• What was Aaron’s response?
• Verse 6: What did Moses order Aaron not to do?
– Why? Verse 7
– Luke 14: 25 - 26
Leviticus 10: Nadab & Abihu
• Verses 8 – 11: Crucial for understanding the work of
the priests
• Difference between holy, common, clean and
unclean is of fundamental importance throughout
• Priests were “Bible teachers;” explained the Law
• Verses 12 – 18: Moses emphasizes need for absolute
holiness and reverence in all the priests do
• Verse 19: How is Aaron? What is on his mind?
– What does this suggest of God’s graciousness?
– Suggests God is gracious to mistakes because we fear Him;
less so when we carelessly, impudently enter His Presence
Numbers 16: Korah, Dathan and Abiram; their wives, children and 250 in
opposition of Moses; earth opens up and consumes them
Even Later…
The Book of Revelation:
– Revelation 19: 20: And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet
that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had
received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These
both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
– Revelation 20:10 And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of
fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be
tormented day and night for ever and ever.
– Revelation 20:14-15 Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire.
This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was
cast into the lake of fire.
– Revelation 21:8 But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the detestable, as for
murderers, the sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their
portion will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second
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