Sanctuary Study – Part 2
Foundation of the Sanctuary Service
The Furniture of the Sanctuary
Object Lessons in the Sanctuary Objects
A latter-day counterfeit sanctuary service
Orders & History of the Priesthood
Function of the Priest
The Levitical Priesthood
 Legitimacy
 Roles
 Support of
 Garments
Christ our High Priest
Two legitimate human orders of priesthood
seen in the Bible
1. Melchizedek: Gen 14 v 18-20
2. Levitical: Num. 3 v 6,9,12,13
Melchizedek priesthood
1. Preceded & superior to the Levitical
2. Christ’s priesthood is said to be “after the order
of Melchizedek” (Heb. 5 v 6)
3. We can therefore be said to be living under the
Melchizedek order
Fathers were the original priests of the
household, an office that passed to the eldest
son, with other benefits associated with the
Sin could disqualify an eldest son from
receiving the birthright: Gen 35:22; 1 Chron
Reuben lost
1. The double portion to Joseph: 1 Chron 5:1
(Material birthright)
2. The honour of being the progenitor of the
Messiah to Judah (1 Chron 5:2)
3. The spiritual birthright to Levi (Num 3:6,9)
Levi gained the spiritual birthright because of
faithfulness to God at a time of crisis i.e.
major apostasy: Exod 32:25-29; Deut 33:8
 Prime function of the priesthood
 God only accessible to the sinner through the
mediation of the priesthood
 Sin separates us from God (Isa 59:2); but through the
ministry of blood we are brought near (Lev 4; 2
Chron. 29:24)
 Atonement service required not just forgiveness, but
holiness i.e. a putting away/removal of all known sin
Levites chosen in place of the firstborn males
on account of their faithfulness
Special consecration service undertaken:
Num 8:9-14
All priests were Levites but not all Levites
were priests
Priests had to be descendents of Aaron or risk
expulsion (Ex 28, 29; Lev 8-10, Num 3:10; Ezra
 Served under the direction of the priests
 Wilderness: Carried the tabernacle & its furniture
but not permitted even to look upon it (Num 4:20)
 After temple building: Prepared showbread, led
the singing, collected the tithe, did other work (1
Chron 23:24-32) centred around the court
 Not allowed to officiate at altar of burnt offering,
burn incense or do any of priest’s work within the
Served from 25 to 50 yo, then assumed
“lighter duties” (Num 8:23-26)
 Performed work related to sacrifices in the court &
1st apartment of the sanctuary, but not the altar of
 Moral guardians, custodians of the temple &
responsible for entire outward worship of the
 Other responsibilities:
▪ Medical diagnosis & quarantine of disease (Deut 24:8,9;
Lev 13,14)
▪ Jurisdiction in civil matters such as unfaithfulness (Num 5)
▪ Custodians of the law (Deut 17:8-13)
 Subject to strict rules
▪ Physical deformity limited what a priest was allowed to
do (Lev 21:21-23)
▪ Marriage: Could not marry a woman whose husband had
put her away or divorced her, a prostitute or a violated
maid (verses 7, 8) but could marry a virgin or widow
▪ Had to avoid ceremonial or physical defilement: not to
touch dead bodies except a very near relative, avoid
anything that could defile,
The High Priest
 Occupied the most exalted place in Israel & meant
to more nearly represent Christ than any other
 Could undertake all the functions of the priests;
but solely responsible for daily offering incense
morning and night on the golden altar in the holy
place before the veil (Exod 30:7,8)
 10th day of 7th month: Entered the most holy place
to make atonement, bearing the names of the 12
The High Priest
 Work of the other priests & Levites could be seen
as being done for the high priest as helpers,
simply because he could not do all the work
himself i.e. It is impossible for one man to perform
all the work of Christ, although the intention was
for the high priest to represent that work
 Subject to stricter rules than priests e.g. could
only marry a virgin (Lev 21:13,14) & not allowed to
touch dead body even of close relative (v 1,2,11)
Tithe: Numbers 18:20-24
 Abraham returned tithes to Melchizedek (Gen 14:17-
20) & Jacob promised to pay tithe of all, even if he
received only food and clothes (Gen 28:20-22)
Parts of offerings & spoils (Deut 18:1,2; Num
18:8-11; 31:25-54; Lev 7:8); unredeemed land
(Lev 27:20,21); “fines” (Lev 5:16; Num 5:8)
Given 48 cities scattered among the tribes, from
which they taught the people and were
supported (Deut 33:8-11; Num 18:20; 35:1-8)
Ordinary Priests: Garments of white linen
 Outer robe woven of one piece, extending nearly
to feet
 “belt” or girdle embroidered in blue, purple &
 Mitre or turban
 Breeches (inside garments)
Made for “glory & for beauty”
Ex 28:40-42
High Priest: Ex 28
 Same garments as ordinary priests underneath
 On top: robe of blue woven in one piece
▪ Beautifully ornamented around the skirt with golden
bells & pomegranates of blue, purple and gold
 On top of this: Sleeveless garment known as the
▪ White linen embroidered in gold, blue, purple & scarlet
▪ Shorter than the others
▪ Held together at the waist by a belt (girdle) of the same
High Priest (Contd)
 Shoulders of ephod:
▪ Gold embroidery
▪ Two onyx stones (one on either shoulder) engraved with
the names of the 12 tribes on Israel
 Breastplate
▪ Made of same material as ephod but more beautiful
▪ Square in design & attached to ephod
▪ Worn over the heart of the high priest
High Priest (Contd)
 Breastplate (Contd)
▪ Twelve precious stones set in it, arranged 3 in a row
▪ Name of one tribe of Israel engraved on each stone
▪ Border of various stones around these 12
▪ Two brilliant stones, called the Urim & Thummim, also
set in the breastplate
▪ Used to ascertain God’s will
 Mitre with inscription: “Holiness to Jehovah”
▪ Fastened by blue lace
12 stones of breastplate (Ex 28:2-39):
 Sardius, topaz, emerald; turquoise, sapphire,
diamond; jacinth, agate, amethyst; beryl, onyx,
Appear to be similar to the foundation stones
of the New Jerusalem (Rev 21:19,20)
C.f. Lucifer in Heaven (Ezek 28:13)
 Carnelian, chrysolite, emerald; topaz, onyx,
jasper; lapis lazuli, turquoise, beryl
Christ the antitypical High Priest (Heb 4:15)
Earthly sanctuary an object lesson of the
service in heaven
Earthly priest required a blood sacrifice (Lev
4:27-29); Christ is Himself the Sacrifice (John
He pleads for us and we are accepted because
of Him (Eph 1:6; John 10:17)
Type: Blood shed in outer court & then priest
entered sanctuary with the blood before Lord
(Heb 9:12):
Antitype: Christ gave His life on earth, & then
entered the heavenly sanctuary with His
blood as High Priest. He enters within the veil
of the heavenly sanctuary (Heb 6:19,20)
Heb 2:17-3:1 KJV Wherefore in all things it
behoved him to be made like unto his brethren,
that he might be a merciful and faithful high
priest in things pertaining to God, to make
reconciliation for the sins of the people. (18) For
in that he himself hath suffered being tempted,
he is able to succour them that are tempted.
(3:1) Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the
heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High
Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;
Stephen N. Haskell: “The Cross and Its Shadow”.
Available from the Adventist Book Centre
( or the
Stanborough Press
M.L. Andreasen: The Sanctuary Service
 Available as a free pdf download at:
SDA Bible Commentary
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