Unit 3 - Deixis University of Lleida. Faculty of Arts. Describing and Using English Yasmina Mortés Alba 2nd year Degree in English 17/01/2011 Deixis: definition Deixis Phenomenon of the language which consists on referring to a piece of reality by using a word whose meaning can only be guessed when both speaker and addressee are sharing the same context. Example: Would you mind leaving this room now, please? You, now and this are deictics. Deixis: components Deictics / Indexicals Words whose meaning depend on the context where the speaker and the addressee are located. Personal pronouns Possessives Locative & temporal adverbs Demonstratives Reference: definition Reference The act of matching a word with the piece of reality that designates. Relating a word with the object that designates. The concept of anaphora Anaphora When a non-deictic word that names an object comes before a deictic that also refers to that piece of reality / object. Example: Mary’s marks are high. So, she is a good student. Mary (non-deictic word and referent), she (deictic). The concept of cataphora Cataphora When the deictic appears before that non-deictic (“more specific”) word that designates that object. Example: She is a good student because Mary has always loved learning. She (deictic) and Mary (non-deictic word and referent). Gestural and symbolic deixis Gestural deixis Pointing at something. Symbolic deixis: Temporal & spatial circumstances are important. Types of deixis I) Person deixis II) Place deixis Demonstratives (This/these: proximal. That/those: distal). Adverbs (Here/there). Verbs (Come/go;Take/bring). III) Time deixis Pronouns (I, you, we…) Possessives (Your, our, their…) Adverbs (Yesterday, tomorrow, now…). Adjectives (Next). Example: Would you mind leaving this room now, please? (type I) (type II) (type III) End of the presentation Thanks for your attention!