Argument: Ethos, Pathos, Logos

Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Mr. Eagan
English 110
All arguments exist in a
rhetorical situation
What is a Rhetorical Situation?
Rhetoric: Using language effectively to
persuade, inform, educate, or entertain
Rhetorical Situation: The circumstances in
which you communicate.
Factors which can affect
an author’s writing:
Political Beliefs
Parents And Peers
Audience: To Whom are you Writing?
Many of the same factors which affect the writer also
affect the audience
Social class
Past experience
The “situation” which generates the
need for writing
Affected by the
Time period or timing
Current events
Cultural significance
Purpose: Your Reason For Writing
What this means…
You need to be aware that a rhetorical
situation exists every time you write
and every time you read.
You need to adapt your writing as well
as your analysis and use of sources
depending on your purpose and your
Introduction to Argument
All arguments must contain two
1. Claim
2. Support
*Also called conclusions and
(QA Chapter 5, pg. 84)
Introduction to Argument
CLAIM: States the issue and takes a
position on a debatable topic (usually
takes the form of a THESIS
STATEMENT in a written argument)
SUPPORT: Facts, evidence, reasons,
examples put together w/ logical
reasoning and critical thinking
Introduction to Argument
Develop and refine your thesis/argument.
Do this by asking yourself questions
about your chosen topic. (?)
Using precise language and establishing
a clear position will help both you and
your readers. (?)
STOP! QA Ex. 5-1, pg. 86
Commercials for weight loss pills on
Taxing new cars according to their
Athletes’ use of steroids and
performance-enhancing drugs
Requiring students to undertake
volunteer or community service
Introduction to Argument
Persuasive Appeals:
Ethos - Establishes the writer/speaker as
a credible/(ethical or moral) person.
Pathos - Appeals to an audience’s
values and beliefs through
Logos - The use of sound reasoning or
Qualities of Ethos
Demonstrating knowledge
Establishing common ground
Demonstrating fairness
Ethical fallacies: ad hominem, guilt by
Ethos - “I am a husband, a father, and a
taxpayer. I have served on the school board
for 20 years. I deserve your vote for city
Such an appeal attempts to persuade by calling
attention to the writer’s/speaker’s character. It
says in effect: I’m a great person so you
should believe what I’m telling you. Ethos
does not concern the veracity of the
argument, only its appeal. (I am a credible
speaker.) (?)
Qualities of Pathos
Using description and concrete
Using figurative language (metaphors,
similes, analogies)
Shaping appeal to audience
Emotional fallacies: bandwagon appeal,
flattery, in-crowd appeal, veiled threats,
loaded language, false analogies
Pathos - “ Government-run healthcare will
have ‘death squads’ to decide which citizens
will live and which will die.”
Such an appeal attempts to persuade by stirring
the emotions of the audience and attempts to
create any number of emotions like fear,
sadness, contentment, joy, and pride. Pathos
does not concern the veracity of the
argument, only its appeal. (QA pg. 88) (?)
Qualities of Logos
Providing examples and precedents
Citing authority and testimony
Establishing causes and effects
Using inductive and deductive
Logical fallacies: begging the question,
post hoc, non sequiter, false dichotomy,
hasty generalization, oversimplification
Logos - “All humans are mortal. You are
a human. Therefore, you are mortal.”
This is called a syllogism. Logical
arguments take this form through the
use of rhetorical devices like process
analysis, comparison/contrast,
cause/effect, etc. (?)
Logos - “Some politicians are corrupt.
Therefore, Senator Jones may be corrupt.”
This is called an enthymeme. It is like a
syllogism but the conclusion is based on
inference rather than evidence. The syllogism
leads to a necessary conclusion from
universally true premises, and the
enthymeme leads to a tentative conclusion
from probable premises.
When Reading for
Note how the author establishes a
Note how the author establishes
Note any revelation of the author’s
credentials or personal history.
When Reading for
Note the primary audience for the text
Note the emotional appeals the author
Note the author’s expectations of the
When Reading for
Note the claims the author makes.
Note the data the author provides in
support of the claims.
Note the conclusion the author draws
When using Ethos, ask
Have I established a credible
Have I established my
Have I expressed my
knowledge and expertise of the
When using Pathos, ask
Have I considered the primary audience
and the type of background they have?
Does my audience agree with me or will
I have to persuade them of the validity
of my argument?
How will I make my paper appeal to my
When using Logos, ask
Have I established the purpose for
my text?
Have I established a clear,
reasonable, and logical progression
of my ideas?
Have I addressed opposing
arguments or perspectives?
Toulmin Logic
CLAIM: a variation of a thesis
statement. If needed, the claim is
qualified or limited
SUPPORT: reasons or evidence,
moving from broad reasons to specific
data and details, support the claim
WARRANTS: The writer’s underlying
assumptions, which are often implied
rather than stated. Warrants may also
need support.
Toulmin Model
Read section 5f in your QA (pg. 89)
STOP! QA Ex. 5-2, pg. 89-90
Applying what you’ve learned
QA Exercise 5-3, pg. 91
QA Exercise 5-4, pg. 93
QA Exercise 5-5, pg. 94