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Presented by
U.S.A.
Tel. 01 586-779-8260
Fax 01 586-779-7704
Email [email protected]
Formaldehyde Neutralization
in the Embalming Laboratory
W.E. Burkel , D.A. Mueller, and T.R. Gest
Division of Anatomical Sciences
University of Michigan Medical School
TO: William Burkel, Professor Anatomy and Cell Biology
5713 Medical Science Building II 0616
FROM: Ed Valentine, Industrial Hygienist
DATE: September 29, 1994
SUBJECT: Formaldebyde Sampling, Gross Anatomy Laboratory, Medical Science Building II
On September 16, 1994, samples of airborne formaldehyde were collected during a gross
anatomy laboratory session in rooms 3635, 3637, 3613, and 3605 of the Medical Science
Building II. During sampling, students and instructors dissected the neck region of cadavers
fixed with an embalming solution containing formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and ethanol.
Samples were collected on Assay Technology passive dosimeters and were analyzed at an
American Industrial Hygiene Association accredited laboratory. All samples were collected in
the breathing zone of instructors and students. Four samples were collected for the duration of
the lab session and five samples were collected during selected fifteen minute periods
throughout the lab session...
Federal and state standards for formaldehyde set perrnissible exposure limits at 0.75 ppm
for an eight hour time-weighted average exposure (TWA) and 2 ppm for a fifteen minute
short term exposure limit (STEL). The results given in table one indicate that employees
have been exposed above these limits. TWA results ranged from 0.29 to 1.15 ppm. The
STEL results ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 ppm. The eight hour TWAs were calculated with the
assumption that employees were not exposed to formaldehyde outside of the saunpled
period.
Engineering and/or administrative controls must be put into place to reduce formaldehyde
exposure in the gross anatomy classes. The attached summary of the formaldehyde
standard outlines the procedures that must be put into place at various exposure levels.
The ventilation system must be checked for proper operation. If the system is operating
correctly, and other means of exposure reduction cannot be implemented, modification of
the ventilation system should be investigated through Facilities Planning and Design....
TWA Before Engineering Controls--ppm
TWA=breathing zone
exposure averaged
over 8 hours
Permissible limit
0.75 ppm
1.15
0.94
0.48
0.29
0.44
0.21
0.72
0.07
0.43
0.63
0.30
0.79
Average 0.60
STDEV 0.41
Range 0.21-1.80
0.35
0.53
1.80
0.63
0.49
TWA - AFTER Engineering Controls - ppm
TWA=breathing zone
exposure averaged
over 8 hours
Permissible limit
0.75 ppm
0.37
0.37
0.29
0.32
0.45
0.23
0.49
0.68
0.35
0.40
0.30
0.38
Average 0.35
STDEV 0.14
Range 0.11-0.68
0.32
0.19
0.14
0.11
0.54
STEL Before Engineering Controls
STEL= Short term (15 min.)
Exposure in breathing zone
Permissible STEL = 2.0 ppm
Average
STDEV
Range
2.07
1.08
1.2-6.5
2.70
1.90
4.10
1.20
3.10
1.60
1.60
1.30
1.80
1.30
3.00
1.30
1.50
1.60
1.30
6.50
2.10
3.00
STEL AFTER Engineering Controls
STEL= Short term (15 min.)
Exposure in breathing zone
Permissible STEL = 2.0 ppm
Average
STDEV
Range
1.63
1.02
0.45-3.4
2.30
0.45
1.08
3.00
1.30
0.97
2.60
2.10
1.20
0.40
0.90
0.60
0.50
3.40
TIME WEIGHTED ANALYSIS TWA
Time Weighted (8hr ave.) Analysis -TWA
0.6
0.5
0.4
ppm
ppm 0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1
2
BEFORE
AFTER
ENGINEERING ENGINEERING
CONTROLS
CONTROLS
3
4
AFTER
AFTER
INFUTRACE
MEA
SHORT TERM EXPOSTURE LIMIT
SHORT TERM (15 min.) EXPOSURE LIMIT--STEL
2.5
2
1.5
ppm
1
0.5
0
1
2
BEFORE
AFTER
ENGINEERING ENGINEERING
CONTROLS
CONTROLS
3
4
AFTER
AFTER
INFUTRACE
MEA
Date: Thu, 11 Dec 97 11:38:52 EST
From: Janet Follo <[email protected]>
To: [email protected]
Subject: Formaldehyde Test Results Dr. Burkel
Great News! I finally received the last of the formaldehyde
results for the monitoring we did back in November with
monoethanolamine. All results came back with
non-detectable levels of formaldehyde. ....
TO:
William Burkel, Ph.D., Professor of Anatomy
Horace Bomar, Director of Medical Facilities
FROM:
Janet Follo, OSEH Representative
DATE:
September 15, 1999
SUBJECT:Formaldehyde Exposure, Gross Anatomy Lab MS II
On August 23, 1999 OSEH conducted air sampling for formaldehyde during a gross anatomy laboratory session in
rooms 3605, 3613, 3635, and 3637 of the Medical Science Building II
Sampling Results
The results of this sampling survey indicated that TWA ranged from 0.09 ppm to 0.22 ppm, all below the PEL. The
STEL results ranged from 0.30 ppm to 0.81 ppm, all below the STEL.
Conclusions and Follow up
The measured formaldehyde exposures for this survey are considered safe, in comparison to
current criteria. The University has met the safety criteria of the Formaldehyde Standard and is
currently exempt from major parts of the regulation. This includes air monitoring and medical
surveillance requirements.
Additional monitoring and or medical surveillance may be warranted if changes in the preparation of cadavers
occur.
Embalming:
• Place Cadaver on embalming blocks to allow drainage
• Disinfect body, shave hair
• Identify cadaver in more than one location
Place Cadaver on embalming blocks to allow drainage
Disinfect Cadaver with Tris Spray
Identify cadaver in Two or more Spots
Identify Cadaver in more than one Location
•Embalming
•Simple Instruments •Aneurism Hooks, Large Bent Forceps,
Scissors, Injection canula
Embalming (continued):
• Raise right common carotid and place injection canula
• Raise right jugular vein and place long bent forceps
into right atrium
• Mix embalming chemical
• Raise Right Common Carotid and place injection canula
• Raise Right Jugular Vein and place long bent forceps
into right atrium and right ventricle
Stock Embalming Chemical
Formaldehyde (37%) 2.50 %
Ethanol
13.53 %
Non-Ionic Detergent 0.12 %
EDTA
0.4 %
Ethylene Glycol
3.38 %
Gluteraldehyde
1.08 %
Methanol
0.47 %
Embalming Solution:
Embalming Chemical - 23%
Deionized Water -
77%
•First Injection
•Inject Embalming Chemical at 20 pounds of pressure
•Inject a 3.5 gallon solution
•Wait
24 hours
•Second Injection
•Same solution as first injection
•Wait
24 hours
•Third Injection
•Same solution as second injection except
•Wait
48 hours
•Neutralization Injection
•10 quarts deionized water
•Add 16 oz. of Trisco Formaldehyde Neutralizer
•Inject chemical at 20 pounds pressure
•Wait 24 hours
•Remove instruments
•Mist Cadaver with Tris Spray
•Place in 5 mil plastic bag and seal shut
Cost of Neutralization
Trisco Formaldehyde Neutralizer
- $2.25 per cadaver
Infutrace - approximately $12.00 per cadaver
Benefits of
Trisco Formaldehyde Neutralizer
•No Formaldehyde exposure
•No downdraft tables and equipment needed
•No crystals
•Low cost
•Simple solution to formaldehyde problems
•OSEH will love you
Actual specimens embalmed and neutralized
using the procedures described in this program
Actual specimens embalmed and neutralized
using the procedures described in this program
Actual specimens embalmed and neutralized
using the procedures described in this program
Presented by
U.S.A.
Tel. 01 586-779-8260
Fax 01 586-779-7704
Email [email protected]
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