DR ANDRE KRAAK

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[email protected]
1
1. Introduce concept of ‘social capital’
2. Background to the CHEC Graduate Destination Survey (GDS) and its key
results
3. Look at the GDS unemployment results from a ‘social capital’ perspective:
4. What can be done: building the ‘social capital’ of graduates and assisting
their pathway into work
2
3

Social capital is that set of mutually supportive relations in communities
and nations that facilitate co-operation and which often derive valuable
collective and economic benefits to members.

Middle-class families have access to information, and are often friends or
family of the managers and owners of firms, and they are more likely to
influence the employment choices made by their offspring

In contrast, young people from the working class do not have these social
networks which assist in accessing career advice and information,
educational opportunities and jobs.
4
5

A key concern at the heart of the CHEC GDS is to determine the extent of
graduate unemployment.

10.1% of graduates were unemployed two years after graduating – with
unemployment peaking amongst CPUT graduates at 16%.
Table 1: Total employment as at 1 Sept 2012
CPUT
Count
%
Employed (part- or full-time)
in the private sector
Employed (part- or full-time)
in the public sector
Self-employed in the private
sector
Employed in the informal
sector
Unemployed and looking for
work
Unemployed, but not looking
for work
Total
UCT
Count
%
Institution
US
Count
%
UWC
Count
%
Total
Count
%
3129
45.8
2819
57.6
2670
46.4
1187
38.1
9806
47.6
2351
34.4
1359
27.8
2428
42.2
1356
43.5
7493
36.4
130
1.9
195
4.0
222
3.9
80
2.6
627
3.0
63
.9
79
1.6
32
.6
17
.6
191
.9
1076
15.8
311
6.4
276
4.8
419
13.4
2082
10.1
85
1.2
129
2.6
124
2.2
56
1.8
393
1.9
6834
100.0
4891
100.0
5752
100.0
3115
100.0
20592
100.0
6
7
KEY PROXIES FOR SOCIAL CAPITAL
1. Parental education
2. Type of School – private or public; what type of
public school
3. Financing of university studies
4. Achievement scores in Grade 12 in mathematics
5. ‘Mature’ (previously employed) versus ‘first-time’
entrants into the labour market
6. Home province
7. Methods of job search
8. Institution, type of qualification and field of study
All of these socio-economic factors imprint certain social capital
‘assets’ onto young people, which either assist (or do not assist) their
transition through higher education into work
8

Levels of parental education serve as the most important proxy for socioeconomic background.

Parental education is also a key influence on whether children finish
secondary school, gain admission to higher education and succeed.

38% and 36% of graduates at UCT and SU had a mother or female
guardian with a university degree or higher, compared to only 15 and 14%
at CPUT and UWC.

47% and 44% of 2010 graduates at UCT and SU had fathers/male
guardians with university degrees, whereas only 18% and 15% of
graduates at UWC.
9

Attendance at a private school is also a good proxy for socio-economic
class status, as it is usually the wealthier who can afford to send their
children to private schools.

17% of the 2010 cohort attended private schooling.

This is far above the national average of 7.3%

Enrolment at UCT of persons with private schooling was 35%.
Table 2: Type of high school attended by members of the 2010 Western Cape
graduate cohort by race
Private/independent
African
Count
%
745
12.2
Coloured
Count
%
651
10.4
Indian
Count
%
238
29.9
White
Count
%
2005
23.4
Total
Count
%
3639
16.7
10
There is a correlation between unemployment and schooling in a township (19%
are unemployed) and rural village setting (14% unemployment). Unemployment
is significantly lower for those who attended secondary schooling in the suburbs
(only 7%).
Table 3: Unemployment by location of Secondary School
(Employment/unemployment as measured on 1st of September 2012)
In a suburb of a town or city
In a township or informal
settlement of a town or city
In a village or on a farm in a
rural area
Total
Employed in the private or
public sector or self-employed
in the private sector
Count
%
12393
92.6
Unemployed and looking for
work
Count
%
Total
992
7.4
Count
13385
%
100.0
1782
81.1
414
18.9
2196
100.0
1376
85.5
233
14.5
1609
100.0
15552
90.5
1639
9.5
17191
100.0
11


Biggest source of funding: student self-funding: 28% and 29% of
UWC and CPUT graduates funded their own studies.
(This is a major strength of a UoT)
The second biggest source of income: 27% and 18% of graduates at
CPUT and UWC received NSFAS

A third source of bursary funding – from private corporations and
benefactors. They play a sizeable role. Indeed, if all types of bursaries are
added together, they comprise 12 232 or 35% of the 34 539 funding
instances listed by respondents. Caution is required here in adding the
two bursary sets together because some students had access to more
than one source of funding

Africans are the largest beneficiaries of NSFAS bursaries (at 58%) and
Whites the lowest (at 11%). Africans also receive the largest slice of
private bursaries - at 36% for Africans and 35% for Whites.
12


Achievement scores in Grade 12 subjects are critical factors in
determining whether young people can access higher education and
getting a job.
Unemployment increases as matriculation symbol in both Mathematics
and Physical Science declines from ‘A’ to ‘H’:
Table 4: Graduate unemployment by matriculation symbol in
Mathematics and Physical Science
(Employment/unemployment as measured on 1st of September 2012)
Maths symbol
A–B
C–D
E–H
Total
Physical science
symbol
A-B
C-D
E-H
Total
Employed in the private
Unemployed and looking for
or public sector or selfwork
employed in the private
sector
Grade 12 Mathematics symbol
Count
%
Count
%
4190
94.8
230
5.2
3918
90.8
396
9.2
2820
84.5
519
15.5
10928
90.5
1146
9.5
Grade 12 Physical science symbol
2472
96.3
95
3.7
3185
92.6
255
7.4
2040
84.8
366
15.2
7698
91.5
716
8.5
Total
Count
4421
4315
3339
12075
%
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2567
3440
2407
8413
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
13
1.
8 344 graduates out of the total cohort of 24 710 were employed in some
form prior to the start of their study period leading to the acquisition of the
2010 - 34% of the 2010 graduate cohort
2.
Unemployment amongst ‘first time entrants’ is much higher than among
‘mature’ graduates - 69% unemployed graduates are first-time entrants
Table 5: Previously employed ‘mature graduates’ and ‘first-time entrants’ in the
labour market, 1st of September 2012
:
Employment status on 1
September 2012:
Employed (in the public or
private sector, or selfemployed)
Unemployed and looking
for work
Other (studying further,
employed in informal
sector, or not looking for
work)
Total
Q3.3: What was your employment status just before you started studying towards the qualification you
obtained in 2010?
First time entrants
Mature graduates
Other (previously
Total
(previously in school,
(previously employed in
employed in informal
studying fulltime or
the formal economy)
sector or unemployed and
unemployed but not
looking for work)
looking for work)
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
9707
54.3
7415
41.5
748
4.2
17871
100.0
1434
69.2
385
18.6
252
12.2
2071
100.0
3728
84.4
544
12.3
146
3.3
4418
100.0
14869
61.0
8344
34.3
1146
4.7
24359
100.0
14

First-timers comprise 14 921 students in the period prior to studying for
the 2010 qualification, of whom 9707 (65.3%) are employed in the public
and private sectors (or self-employed) on the 1st September 2012.

At CPUT unemployment rates reach 18.2% on 1 September 2012.
Table 6: ‘First-time entrants’ in the labour market by higher education institution,
1st of September 2012
CPUT
Count
%
Employed in the private
or public sector or selfemployed in the private
sector
Unemployed and looking
for work
Other (studying further,
employed in the informal
sector, not looking for
work)
Total
UCT
Count
Institution
US
Count
%
%
UWC
Count
%
Total
Count
%
2948
69.3
2578
64.9
2879
62.5
1302
62.4
9707
65.1
775
18.2
193
4.9
191
4.1
275
13.2
1434
9.6
534
12.5
1198
30.2
1537
33.4
510
24.5
3780
25.3
4257
100.0
3970
100.0
4607
100.0
2087
100.0
14921
100.0
o Unemployment among African first-timers reaches 20.2% on 1
September 2012.
15
Very high levels of unemployment exist among graduates who came from
Limpopo Province (19% unemployment), North West (17%), Eastern Cape (15%)
and Mpumalanga (15%).
Table 7: unemployment by home province during secondary
schooling
(Employment/unemployment as measured on 1st of September
2012)
EC
FS
GP
KZN
LP
MP
NC
NW
WC
Total
Employed in the private or
public sector or self-employed
in the private sector
Count
%
2002
84.5
235
93.5
1202
91.7
1046
95.9
369
80.7
213
84.8
358
93.3
231
82.8
10003
91.5
15659
90.4
Unemployed and looking for
work
Count
368
16
109
45
88
38
26
48
929
1666
%
15.5
6.5
8.3
4.1
19.3
15.2
6.7
17.2
8.5
9.6
Total
Count
2370
251
1311
1091
457
251
384
279
10932
17326
%
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
16
Sending CVs to prospective employers (18% of graduates) seems to have been
the main job search technique used, followed by responding to a job
advertisement in the printed media (13%).
SOCIAL CAPITAL
Two methods of job search – ‘family and friends’ or ‘being asked to apply for a
job’ – when joined together constitute the biggest method used at 19%.
This signifies prior knowledge of where to secure employment, qualities which
derive from one’s social connections or ‘social capital’.
Social networks structured around White students are very influential in helping
them find employment. Table 11 tells us 54% of social capital beneficiaries were
White graduates, whereas only 18% of ‘social capital’ beneficiaries were
Africans.
Table 8: Beneficiaries of social capital as primary ‘job search’ method in
finding a job, 1st of September 2012, by race
African
Count
%
Beneficiaries of social
capital:
521
17.8
Coloured
Count
%
714
24.4
Indian
Count
%
110
White
Count
%
3.8
1579
54.0
Total
Count
%
2923
100.0
17
Table 9 shows employment/unemployment status by differing qualification types. The majority of
unemployed graduates have certificates and diplomas (44%) followed by Bachelors degrees (37%).
Graduates with these two qualification types comprising 81% of all unemployed.
Table 9: Employment status by qualification type, 1st of September 2012
Certificate/diploma
Count
Employed (part- or
full-time) in the private
sector
Self-employed in the
private sector
Employed (part- or
full-time) in the public
sector
Employed in the
informal sector
Unemployed and
looking for work
Unemployed, but not
looking for work
Total
%
Postgraduate
certificate/diploma/
bachelor's
Count
%
Bachelor's
Count
%
Honours
Count
%
Master's
Count
%
Doctorate
Count
%
Total
Count
%
2151
21.9
807
8.2
4475
45.6
1045
10.7
1235
12.6
93
.9
9806
100.0
80
12.7
74
11.7
219
35.0
64
10.2
186
29.7
4
.7
627
100.0
1716
22.9
1066
14.2
2736
36.5
761
10.2
974
13.0
240
3.2
7493
100.0
48
25.3
12
6.4
78
41.1
31
16.1
21
11.1
0
.0
191
100.0
907
43.6
70
3.4
768
36.9
187
9.0
115
5.5
34
1.6
2082
100.0
73
18.6
16
4.2
172
43.7
68
17.2
51
13.0
14
3.4
393
100.0
4975
24.2
2046
9.9
8449
41.0
2155
10.5
2583
12.5
384
1.9
20592
100.0
18
Institution and qualification type, Slide 2:
Tables 10 and 11 entail further ‘drilling down’ to focus on the extent of unemployment among
African graduates by institution and field of study. CPUT carries the bulk of the burden – 97% of
unemployed African graduates with certificates and diplomas graduates from CPUT. Table shows
that the bulk of the unemployed at CPUT carry ‘Business and Commerce’ (43%) and ‘SET’ (36%)
certificates and diplomas:
Table 10: Unemployed African certificate and diploma holders
CPUT
Count
Row N %
Science, engineering and
technology
Business and commerce
Human and social sciences
Health sciences
Law
Education
Total
Weighted
UCT
Count
Row N %
Institution
US
Count
Row N %
UWC
Count
Total
Row N %
Count
Row N %
237
97.2%
0
0.0%
7
2.8%
0
0.0%
244
100.0%
282
87
52
0
4
662
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
0.0%
25.8%
97.3%
0
0
0
0
5
5
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
32.6%
0.8%
0
0
0
0
0
7
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
1.0%
0
0
0
0
7
7
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
41.6%
1.0%
282
87
52
0
16
681
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
0.0%
100.0%
100.0%
19
Institution and qualification type, Slide 3:
Table 11: Unemployed African certificate and diploma holders
CPUT
Count
Row N %
Science, engineering and
technology
Business and commerce
Human and social sciences
Health sciences
Law
Education
Total
Weighted
UCT
Count
Row N %
Institution
US
Count
Row N %
UWC
Count
Total
Row N %
Count
Row N %
237
97.2%
0
0.0%
7
2.8%
0
0.0%
244
100.0%
282
87
52
0
4
662
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
0.0%
25.8%
97.3%
0
0
0
0
5
5
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
32.6%
0.8%
0
0
0
0
0
7
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
1.0%
0
0
0
0
7
7
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
41.6%
1.0%
282
87
52
0
16
681
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
0.0%
100.0%
100.0%
20

There is little evidence of institutional responses to help graduates
overcome unemployment. 1

Institutional leadership appears to have surrendered to the indisputable
logic of the market and unemployed graduates are left to fend to fend for
themselves.

Institutional strategies are both possible and necessary.
HOW?
1. Firstly, use the results of GDSs of recent graduate cohorts to target
current final-year students who are about to graduate and risk facing
unemployment. By means of disaggregation and drilling-down, GDS can
provide a detailed profile of the students likely to face unemployment
after graduation.
2. Secondly, universities can learn from a few innovative university schemes
and from NGOs who have been working with unemployed post-school
youth (including university graduates but mostly comprising schoolleavers) in accessing jobs.
3. Such ‘work socialization’ schemes can be adapted to specific
institutional conditions and deployed to assist graduates likely to face
unemployment.
21
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

GDS databases allow institutional researchers to ‘drill down’ from highly
aggregated categories of unemployment (for example, African graduates)
to lower and lower levels of micro-level detail.

‘Drilling-down’ in this paper took place at seven different micro-level data
levels:
Disaggregation by race
Disaggregation by provincial home location
Disaggregation by school background and Grade 12 Mathematics symbol
Disaggregation by location of childhood secondary school
Disaggregation by field of study and qualification type
Disaggregation by institution
Dissagregation by ‘mature’ or ‘first-time entering’ students
Such a ‘drilling down’ exercise – using each of these seven variables – can be
undertaken with the 2013, 2014 and 2015 final-year cohorts.
This group of final year students can then be given appropriate levels of ‘work
socialisation’ support and training.
22
1. Lesley Emmanuel completed a PhD in 2009 at Wits University working in
the ‘World of Work Training and Internship Programme’.
2. The project was set up by Wits in the early 2000s to deal with the
employability problem of many humanities graduates and post-graduate
students.
3. Her detailed qualitative study revolved around the transition to work of 10
participants - five post-graduate informants from years 2005 and 2006
respectively.
4. In her thesis Emmanual adopted ‘newcomer socialisation’ theories to
reveal the institutional acculturation required to ‘fit in’ at work and the
psycho-social personality traits required to become employed.
5. The tacit and hidden components of work in industry, as well as the
psycho-social attributes needed – such as self-assurance and ‘self-hood’
which underpin highly personalised routes to ‘professional identity’– were
revealed.
6. ‘Mentoring’ students through work internships was a key role. Participants
were initially reluctant to ‘present’ themselves and demonstrate or even
‘perform’ their worthwhile attributes which were relevant and useful to the
world of work. Mentoring assisted with producing a CV, writing an
acceptance letter, and ‘presenting’ for an interview.
23
1. NGOs are making a meaningful contribution to equipping unemployed
youth for work.
2. The critical element of their work is to build ‘social capital’.
3. Many of the NGOs working in the field argue that young people do not
have sufficient ‘self-knowledge and autonomy’ – they are not always
aware of their emerging adult personality and their individual personal
strengths. They are unaware of how to present themselves to others, to
prospective employers. They do not always have sufficient self-confidence
to choose correctly from a range of post-university options.
4. A significant part of NGO work in this young adult sector is therefore to
present a set of countervailing influences – to help build self confidence
and self-esteem, build a sense of responsibility towards others, work as a
team and form part of a collective.
5. Young people are provided with an exposure to the world of work and its
requirements – including all the infringements on personal freedom which
working in a hierarchical organisation entails.
24
1. NGOs create structured pathways from training into work and aftercare. NGO staff play a crucial ‘go-between’ role by approaching
prospective employers for support to host short-term work-experience
internships and to recruit trainees for longer-term employment.
2. The transition to work for young people is a highly socialized
process: the labour market does not operate as a ‘free market’ in a open
manner. It needs to be ‘massaged’ behaviourally by NGO’s working in the
field, to convince wavering employers about the merits of employing
novice workers in their industries. If young
trainees have been
conditioned for work and appropriately socialized, employers may be
prepared to create openings for first-time workers.
3. Mentoring, counseling, after-care: The NGO intervention is most often
combined with significant career and personal counseling both prior to
employment, but also after initial employment take-up. The NGOs play a
critical alignment role here, of clarifying for young employees what is
required of them in the workplace. Structuring this ‘newcomer
socialisation’ in this way helps youngsters stay the course and slowly rise
up the occupational ladder.
25
1. All of this NGO work provides a key substitute or proxy for the valuable
social networks which are absent in poor peoples’ lives.
2. They are building ‘social capital’.
3. Universities can also play this role with at-risk graduates, and by so doing,
act to reduce graduate unemployment at their institutions.
26
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