“Interdisciplinarity” ng G.E.
at ang Epekto nito sa Pagtuturo
ng Filipino, Literatura at
Humanidades sa Kolehiyo
Ramon Guillermo
Depto. ng Filipino at Panitikan ng Pilipinas
Kolehiyo ng Arte at Literatura
UP Diliman
Ang ideyal ni Humboldt
• „ …die Anregung aller Kräfte des
Menschen, damit diese sich über die
Aneignung der Welt entfalten und zu einer
sich selbst bestimmenden Individualität
und Persönlichkeit führen,“ (Wilhelm von
Humboldt, 1767-1835)
• “Ang pagpapasigla ng lahat ng lakas ng tao
upang umunlad siya sa pamamagitan ng
pag-aangkin ng daigdig at upang tumungo
sa pagiging isang sarili at pagkatao na may
Pagpapaunlad ng buong
pagkatao, ng sarili at ng mga
kakayahan ng bawat isang
Edukasyong Neoliberal
Pag-aaral ng mga kaalaman at
kasanayan na kailangan sa
pamilihan sa paggawa batay sa
mga istriktong naitakdang
kurikula ng mga partikular na
espesyalisasyon (“outcomes
based education”)
Pagpapahalaga sa hindi
matatawarang indibidwal na
katangian ng pag-unlad ng
bawat tao na nagbibigay sa
kanya ng kasiyahan at
katuparan sa kanyang pag-iral
at kahusayan bilang
Edukasyong Neoliberal
Pagpapahalaga sa
istandardisasyon at pagkamasusukat ng mga kaalaman at
kasanayan ng bawat indibidwal
alinsunod sa mga naitakdang
pamantayang pang-ekonomiya
na pambansa at internasyunal
Walang tigil at habambuhay na
pagpapaunlad ng mga
kakayahan at pagpapalawak ng
Edukasyong Neoliberal
Patuloy na pag-aaral ng mga
kaalaman at kasanayan batay sa
laging nagbabagong
pangangailangan ng pamilihan
sa kontraktwalisadong paggawa
(“lifelong learning”)
Edukasyong Neoliberal
Paglalaan ng sapat na panahon Pagpapaikli ng panahon ng pagng pag-aaral na naaangkop at
aaral at pagbabawas ng sa
nababagay sa pangangailangan
pangkalahatang edukasyon
ng pag-unlad ng pagkatao ng
upang mas mabilis na
mga indibidwal sa
makatugon ang mga
pamamagitan ng malawak na eskwelahan sa kagyat na mga
pangangailangan at “turnover”
ng pamilihan sa paggawa (“on
time graduation rates”)
Bildung vs. “Interdisciplinarity”
• Ang isang taong may Bildung ay may malawak na kaalaman at may
taglay na iba’t ibang antas at direksyon sa pag-unlad ng kanyang mga
kaalaman at kakayahan. Bagamat maaaring may higit na malalim
siyang kaalaman sa isa o higit na mga partikular na disiplina ay hindi
masasabing simpleng “espesyalista” ang ganitong uri ng tao. Dulot ng
malawak niyang kaalaman at pamilyaridad sa iba’t ibang disiplina ay
maaari siyang makipag-ugnayan sa kanyang gawaing siyentipiko sa iba
pang mga indibidwal na may Bildung.
Bildung vs. “Interdisciplinarity”
• Naiiba ang kaso ng tinatawag na “interdisciplinarity”. Ang
interdisciplinarity ay ang pagtatagpo ng mga “espesyalista” sa isa’t isa.
Ang pormula ng “interdisciplinarity” ay tugon sa labis na
espesyalisasyon ng edukasyon sa mga Unibersidad. Hindi
kinakailangan ang ganitong konsepto upang ipaliwanag ang
pagtatagpuan ng mga indibidwal na nahubog ayon sa ideyal ng
Bildung ni Humboldt. Likas na dito sa huli, dulot ng malawak na
kaalamang nakamit sa edukasyon, ang pagtatagpo at pagbabahagihan
ng mga disiplina sa isa’t isa.
Andrew Barry and Georgina Born (eds.),
Interdisciplinarity: Reconfigurations of the Social and Natural Sciences.
London & New York: Routledge, 2013.
Ang dalawang pinakalaganap na Praktikang Interdisiplinaryo:
1) Integrative Synthesis Mode
2) Subordination Service Mode
Andrew Barry and Georgina Born (eds.),
Interdisciplinarity: Reconfigurations of the Social and Natural Sciences.
London & New York: Routledge, 2013.
Integrative Synthesis Mode: “the sum of two or more 'disciplinary' components or as
achieved through a synthesis of different disciplinary approaches, whether through a
process of integration or negotiation”;
Andrew Barry and Georgina Born (eds.), Interdisciplinarity: Reconfigurations of the
Social and Natural Sciences. London & New York: Routledge, 2013.
Subordination Service Mode: “interdisciplinarity takes a form in which one or more
disciplines occupy a subordinate or service role in relation to other component
disciplines. This points to the hierarchical division of labour that characterises many
forms of interdisciplinarity (and that may indeed be the nature of the articulation in
putatively 'integrative' interdisciplinarity). In this mode the service discipline(s) are
typically conceived as making up for, or filling in for, an absence or lack in the other,
(master) discipline(s). In some cases the social sciences are understood precisely in
such terms. They appear to make it possible for the natural sciences and engineering
to engage with 'social factors' that had hitherto been excluded from analysis or
Andrew Barry and Georgina Born (eds.), Interdisciplinarity: Reconfigurations of the
Social and Natural Sciences. London & New York: Routledge, 2013.
Subordination Service Mode: “In a nuanced analysis of his role as a social scientist
working in an interdisciplinary nanotechnology research centre, Robert Doubleday
suggests that in these circumstances '"social science" runs the risk of taking on the
role of protecting an inner experimental core from wider complexities of the public
meanings of nanotechnology research'. In effect, the social scientist can come to
represent 'society' in the laboratory, leaving the conduct of natural scientific research
both largely unaffected by the presence of the social scientist and remote from any
wider social engagement. While in the field of art-science, particularly in the UK,
funding has often been predicated on the notion that the arts are expected to
provide a service to science, rendering it more popular or accessible to the lay
public, or enhancing and publicising aesthetic aspects of scientific materials or
imagery that might not otherwise be appreciated or known.” (11)
Robert Frodeman,
Sustainable Knowledge:
A Theory of
New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2014.
Robert Frodeman, Sustainable Knowledge: A Theory of Interdisciplinarity.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
In addition to disciplinary work, academics should imagine what rigor looks like
under inter- and transdisciplinary conditions... These opportunities are real, but so is
the danger that new inter- and transdisciplinary standards can become a stalking
horse for the neoliberal agenda. In opening up our understanding of rigor to morethan disciplinary standards we could also strike at the integrity of university life.
Universities could lose their critical function, being reduced to a one-dimensional
tool of marketing and the status quo. Again, to be clear: reducing universities as
market entities is a category mistake. (51)
“transdisciplinary standards can become a
stalking horse for the neoliberal agenda”
• stalk·ing horse (noun)
• a screen traditionally made in the shape of a horse behind which a
hunter can stay concealed when stalking prey.
• a false PRETEXT concealing someone's real intentions
Robert Frodeman, Sustainable Knowledge: A Theory of Interdisciplinarity.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
This is a way of noting that the impetus for transdisciplinarity has changed... The rise
of neoliberal market mechanisms applied to academia means that professors are
increasingly subject to a regime that makes use of all the means of the information
age to discipline their behavior... Syllabi must be publically available on university
websites, student evaluations are tabulated and used in tenure decisions, and the
use of bibliometrics in tenure and promotion review has become commonplace. The
use of metrics of various types – G and H Indexes, journal impact factors, and even a
host of altmetrics such as the number of PDF downloads – mean that the
contemporary academic is monitored to a degree unimaginable to past generations.
Robert Frodeman, Sustainable Knowledge: A Theory of Interdisciplinarity.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
The university has a distinctive place within knowledge production precisely because
of its distance from the proprietary interests of private firms and individuals. Entire
areas of research would likely be lost, and the status of the areas that remain would
profoundly change, as knowledge production would be more clearly identified with
specific interests. Neoliberalism names the shift in public philosophy over the past
40 years, the development of a new public management paradigm that seeks to
govern every social institution by market relations. Under a neoliberal regime
education is treated as a private rather than a public good, undercutting the financial
model of state university systems, as the responsibility for funding higher education
shifts from the state to the individual. The drive to apply market mechanisms to
every aspect of the academy implies that areas without a clearly saleable market
presence could simply disappear. (77)
Robert Frodeman, Sustainable Knowledge: A Theory of Interdisciplinarity.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) disciplines might be expected to
survive through their connections to technological advance; but they would be
transformed by closer ties to market concerns. As for the humanities, there are a
number of possibilities. We would expect them to suffer both because of their
(seeming) lack of market utility, and because the knowledge produced by humanists
is often provocative rather than productive in nature. It is, after all, part of the
humanist’s Socratic heritage to be a provocateur. On the other hand, the wholesale
elimination of programs across the humanities might cause a renewed appreciation
of how central they are to the creation of a civilized society. (80)
Robert Frodeman, Sustainable Knowledge: A Theory of Interdisciplinarity.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Humanists have at least three roles to play: as conservator of a common cultural
legacy, as instantiation of the avant-garde, and as interpreter and translator in the
borderlands between disciplines and between the disciplines and society. The first
two categories have defined much of 20th-century humanities. The third, working
with scientists, engineers, and policy-makers, could – and should – be seen as
complementary to the first two projects. The next chapter will survey this last
possibility, exploring whether there could be a non-disciplinary career track for
“ a non-disciplinary career track
for humanists”
“ a non-disciplinary career track for humanists”
Interdisciplinarity in “subordination-service” mode
Mga Posibleng Trabaho?
Maaaring maging service teaching staff (na karaniwang
untenurable) para sa mga interdisiplinaryo na core course sa
mga science at engineering colleges at departamento o
maaaring magsilbi bilang mga “interdisciplinary consultant”
para sa mga research project.
No. 20 Series of 2013
The core courses are inter-disciplinary and are stated broadly enough to
accommodate a range of perspectives and approaches. Starting with the self, the
courses expand to cover the nation and the world and various ways of
comprehending social and natural realities (artistic, scientific, mathematical).
No. 20 Series of 2013
Section 4. General Education Electives
A total of nine units, the elective courses, each must qualify as a GE subject where it
1. Conform to the philosophy and goals of General Education as stated in this
2. Apply an inter- or cross-disciplinary perspective; and
3. Draw materials, cases or examples from Philippine realities and experiences, and
not just from those of other countries.
Although GE electives are categorized by knowledge domain, primarily to ensure a
balanced and well-rounded course design, the content and perspectives of the GE
electives traverse disciplinal borders.
No. 20 Series of 2013
GE Core Courses (wala nang Filipino, English at Literatura)
Understanding the Self/Pag-unawa sa Sarili
Readings in Philippine History/ Mga Babasahín hinggil sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas
The Contemporary World/ Ang Kasalukuyang Daigdig
Mathematics in the Modern World/ Matematika sa Makabagong Daigdig
Purposive Communication/ Malayuning Komunikasyon
Art Appreciation/ Pagpapahalaga sa Sining
Science, Technology and Society/ Agham, Teknolohiya, at Lipunan
Ethics/ Etika
• Ang tunay na Trans-disciplinarity ay isang magandang hangarin kapag
nangangahulugan ito ng simetrikong relasyon at paggalang ng mga disiplina
sa isa’t isa sa pagsasagawa at pagbubuo ng iba’t ibang moda at
kompigurasyon tungo sa pagtuklas ng higit na kaalaman.
• Mahirap ang lagay ng humanidades sa kasalukuyang neoliberal na
Unibersidad dulot ng pagiging hindi ganap na maaaring bilangin ng mga
“produkto” nito, sa epekto man sa mag-aaral, o sa laki ng tubong kikitain
ng negosyo;
• Nanganganib na malamon ang mga humanidades ng mga disiplina sa
siyensya, inhenyeriya o negosyo sa modang “subordination service” ng
• Ang Neoliberal at nakatuon-sa-pamilihan na interdisciplinarity ay
nangangahulugan ng paghina ng disiplinal na katatagan, kung hindi man
abolisyon, ng malaking bahagi ng humanidades sa mga Pamantasan.
Ang posibleng mga epekto ng Neoliberal Interdisciplinarity sa pagtuturo
ng wika sa antas Unibersidad:
1) Ganap na paglusaw ng mga sabjek ng pagtuturo ng wika sa kolehiyo
(nagaganap na);
2) Pagpapalabnaw ng pagtuturo sa wika bilang hiwalay na sabjek
patungo sa pagiging bahagi lamang ng mga interdisiplinaryong
sabjek (magaganap pa lamang);
3) Pagbuwag o abolisyon ng mga espesyalisadong departamento na
nagtuturo ng wika at literature (nagaganap na sa ibang mga
4) Paghina o paglaho ng disiplinal na batayan ng pag-aaral ng wika at
literatura sa antas A.B., M.A. o PhD sa maraming Unibersidad
(nagaganap na o magaganap pa lamang?).
Kailangang maging Kritikal sa ibinabandila ngayong
Neoliberal Interdisciplinarity!
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