Chapter 7- Setting the Stage and Getting It

advertisement
Dr. Dan Bertrand
LEEA 554




How are policy issues defined?
Why is the definition of an issue important?
What is a policy agenda and how do policy
issues get on it?
How can education leaders follow and
influence these stages of policy?



People have a powerful desire to perceive the
reality as they think they should perceive.
Breaking free of a definition of reality accepted
and expected by the people is extremely
difficult.
First two stages of a policy process:


Issue Definition
Agenda setting


A political process that involves transforming a
problem into an issue that the government can
address.
Distinguishing problems from policy issues.


Problems render life unpleasant and inconvenient.
Issues imply an interpretation of the problem, a set
of values and an understanding of the proper role of
government.


The EPPRC members represent different political,
social and economic views.
Compete with each other to have their definition
of the problems accepted.




U.S. Dept. of Ed.
Teacher’s unions
Textbook publishers
University professors
Education associations
Funded by corporations, endowments, wealthy
individuals and Government.



Interpretations and solutions that are obvious
to one group do not occur to the other.
Many fear that policies will be ruled
unconstitutional.
Constraints of the popular values and policy
mechanisms.

Basic Research- theoretical and some say the
least practical.


Applied Research- test theories in real life
settings.


Cognitive Psychologist- learning theory
Evaluation Research- assesses how well a new
educational policy or program is working.
Integrative Research- a meta-analysis.

Investigates past research studies on one topic and
integrates them into a single work that seeks to
describe what the research as a whole says.


Ideology shapes issue definition as much as
research does.
Think tanks and foundations adhere to a specific
ideological position.
Predisposition influences how they analysis things.
 Ex.) Low student achievement- conservatives view it as
the results of individualistic factors such as family and
seek solutions based upon market or privatization.
Liberals view it as a societal problem and seek solutions
such as remedial programs or nutrition.


Ideology also determines the type of research done
and the questions that guide it.





Claims-must be made about a problem to make it
an issue.
Evidence-descriptive material to support at least
some of the important claims made about a
problem.
Solution-A good definition contains a realistic
solution for the problem it identifies and describes.
Discourse- A good definition is expressed in power
language that links the issue to values, hopes, fears
and aspirations.
Broad appeal-A good definition is appealing to a
broad audience.


Definition: policy agenda is composed of those
issues under serious discussions.
Types of Policy Agendas
Systematic- Broad issues those outside of
government are discussing.
 Professional- issues being discussed within interest
groups, education policy networks and education
associations and professional educators
 Media- issues editors and communications industry
are discussing.



Public Agendas- education issues that the
general public are paying attention to primarily
due to the media.
Government Agendas- issues the government
is paying attention to.


Access to agendas are competitive so most
never reach the government, media or public
agendas.
Generally the agenda moves from professional
to media to public arena



Sometimes sits for a long time- i.e., school
choice
Public Officials and Agendas- political leaders
often play a key role.
Other Paths




Triggering event can occur
Interest groups use lobbyists to sustain pressure.
Policy makers point out problems to government.
Policy actors stage events to attract media attention.


Issue policy attention cycle is when a policy
issue suddenly becomes the center of attention
on several agendas and then suddenly loses
attention.
Advocates must work hard to keep their ideas
on the agenda.


Following the Early Stages- journals of education
associates, Ed. Week and the internet.
Influencing the Early Stages



National Issues- write letters and send emails.
Challenging National Definitions- redefine and
reshape the issue
Influencing Agenda Setting- Be more visible and
more accessible therefore easier to influence.

Use power resources such as knowledge, allies and
organizational effectiveness.



Get the attention of the media and public
policy makers.
Use less dramatic techniques.
Plan how to facilitate media attention
REDUCING ATTENTION:
-Solution would be expensive
-Provide a realistic negative analysis



One of the most effective things to do.
Establish a program on the cutting edge.
Patience and persistence are keys to success for
programs that take time to get noticed.


Locate the websites of the organizations listed
in Figure 7.5 & 7.6 and determine their
ideological orientation.
News Story for Analysis- Who’s profiting from
Ohio’s Charter Schools? Q.1,2,3,4.
Download
Related flashcards

Information technology

21 cards

Art genres

34 cards

Educational psychology

28 cards

Arts

20 cards

Create Flashcards