Perspectives on the Individual and Instructional Design

“Perspectives on the Individual”
and Instructional Design
Paul Younghouse
Center for Teaching and Learning
with Technology
What Is Instructional Design?
Application of learning theory to
development of courses and
course materials
Training effort during World War II
Learning Theory
Inductive, associationist
Hypothetico-deductive, schematic
Instructional designs
Highly structured, incremental
Modeling, competence
Problem-solving, analysis-bysynthesis
The ADDIE Model
Assess Learning Goals
Conduct Needs Analysis
Identify Knowledge Gap
Conduct Audience Analysis
Develop Learning Objectives
Identify ID Strategy
Select Delivery Method
Establish Evaluation Method
Develop Planning Materials
Andrew Churches, Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy
Create Prototypes
Run Pilot Studies
Launch/Upload the Instructional
Collect Performance Data
Review Effectiveness
Report Results
Bloom’s Taxonomy
IDEA Objectives
Which Learning
“We consider the effects of
internal conflict, totalitarian
states, and social prejudice and
the ways they pose challenges
to the very survival of a sense
of self, but such challenges
show the courage of individuals
as they struggle to survive and
to grow.”
Which Learning
 “The purpose of this course is to
stimulate personal reflection by carefully
examining situations in which:
 individuals seek to find meaning in the
consciousness of their own mortality.
 individuals struggle to come to grips with
some very important features of self—
integrity, authenticity, autonomy.
 individuals forge an understanding of
themselves through consciousness of their
relation to nature and to society.”
Which Learning
“Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:
1. Explain with examples how an individual's values and
ethics are open to challenge by competing systems of
values and ethics and by the individuals who express
2. Describe the ways in which the narratives of selected
representative individuals have, or have not, affected
their own self-understanding.
3. Identify significant elements of the relationship between
personal identity as a given (biological, materialist,
metaphysical, etc.) and personal identity as a
construction (social, ideological, or through personal
decisions and choices).
4. Explain how the formation of the individual can be
damaged by political power, family, and psychological
Focusing QuestionsGilgamesh
 Heroes provide one perspective on the individual, since
heroes serve as exemplary individuals or models of
conduct. Gilgamesh is one of the first heroes in world
literature. How does he exemplify heroic behavior?
 Other perspectives on the individual are provided by
consideration of those factors that shape our identities.
Enkidu first appears in Gilgamesh as a wild man, totally
outside human society. How is he socialized into human
society? What role does his friendship with Gilgamesh
play in Enkidu's socialization?
 As Enkidu lies dying he bitterly complains that the
temple prostitute "Made me see things as a man, and a
man sees death in things"(49). To what extent is
awareness of mortality a distinctive human train?
Focusing QuestionsGilgamesh
 In their adventures together, Gilgamesh and
Enkidu defeat the monster Humbaba. Exactly what
is Humbaba? Do you think this figure, at least in
some respects, symbolizes some natural
phenomenon? You may wish to reread the
descriptions of Humbaba on pages 29 and 38.
 As Gilgamesh and Enkidu approach Humbaba's
forest, Gilgamesh is described as being "revitalized
by danger"(35). To what extent is a person's
individual development enhanced by confronting
danger or adversity? Are challenges and hardships
essential to building character?
 The death of Enkidu drives Gilgamesh into a frenzy
of grief. To what extent do extreme pain or
bereavement isolate or "desocialize" an individual?
Focusing QuestionsGilgamesh
 Gilgamesh's search for Utnapishtim and the secret of immortality is
an early example of the heroic quest. While there are possible
elements of areal journey in Gilgamesh's quest, it is easy to see this
quest as a symbolic journey that brings Gilgamesh to a deeper
understanding of human mortality. Which elements of the journey
seem to you to be the most realistic? Which elements seem the
most symbolic? Little is said in the text about Gilgamesh's behavior
and actions after his return. How would you imagine him to have
been changed by this journey?
 The story of Utnapishtim is clearly similar to the biblical account of
Noah and the Ark. What are the similarities between the two
stories? What important differences are there?
 What can you infer from Gilgamesh about the religious beliefs of the
ancient Mesopotamians? What attitudes to the Mesopotamian gods
appear in the story? See, for example, Utnapishtim's comments to
Gilgamesh on pages 78-79. What beliefs, if any, about an afterlife
seem to be implied in the story?
The IDEA Center
Selecting IDEA Objectives
Idea Center and Bloom’s
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