Introduction - Youth Development & Agricultural Education

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Amy Jones
Dr. Neil Knobloch
Dr. Kathryn Orvis
Dr. Levon Esters
Competition
Mixed
Results
(Radhakrishna, 2006, Lepper & Greene, 1978; Weber & McCullers, 1986; Johnson, 1914)
personal skills and goals and career development
(Blakely, 1993)
According to the National FFA Organization…
“The role of career development events is to
motivate students and encourage leadership,
personal growth, citizenship and career
development” (2006, p. 5)
• Horticulture Industry Certification
–
–
–
–
Professional Landcare Network
American Society for Horticultural Sciences
Botanical Gardens
Indiana Nursery & Landscape Association
• Horticulture Degree Programs
– Approx. 54 on-campus
• Horticulture Careers
– Wide Variety
– Various Degree Requirements
The purpose of this research study was to explore youth’s…
Knowledge
Motivation
Learning
Experiences
and to describe relationships between
Youth Motivation
Learning and Preparation
Coach Motivation
Youth’s Performance
in a competitive out-of-school horticulture career
development experience.
Youth Motivation
-Intrinsic Value
-Utility Value
-Attainment Value
-Cost
-Self-Efficacy
Pre-CDE Educational Experiences
Coach Motivation
-Intrinsic Value
-Utility Value
-Attainment Value
-Cost
-Self-Efficacy
Learning and Preparation
-Learning Resources
-Preparation Time
CDE Outcomes
CDE Performance
-General Knowledge Exam
-Identification Exam
-Product Evaluation Exam
• Expectancy-Value Theory
Expectancies
and Values
• Self-Efficacy
Personal
beliefs
achievement
perseverance
completion
(Eccles & Wigfield, 2002)
thoughts/feelings
motivation
behaviors
(Bandura, 1994)
Competition
•Of the four specific organizational elements of CTSOs
(leadership, community service, competitions, and
professional development) competition had the most
constructive effects (Alfed et. al, 2007)
Youth
Motivation
•Six themes of how Oklahoma secondary agriculture
teachers motivated their students to participate in CDEs
Russell et al. (2009)
•Students’ motives to participate in CDE were different
than their teachers’ motives (Croom et al., 2005)
Preparation
•Visits to garden centers and greenhouses were the main
preparation aid, followed by videos and slides, websites,
textbooks, and university’s living laboratories (Poskey et.
al, 2005)
Performance
•Demographical differences between low and high
performers at a Livestock Evaluation CDE (Theiman et. al,
2010)
•
•
•
•
Exploratory, descriptive study
QUAN + qual
Questionnaire distribution
Performance
– General Knowledge Exam
• 80 questions (800 Points, 36%)
– Identification Exam
• 100 specimen (1000 Points, 45%)
– Product Evaluation Exam
• 8 classes (400 Points, 18%)
• Youth
• motivation, 28 items (Post-hoc reliability 0.64 – 0.89)
• learning resources and preparation, 21 items
• demographics, 5 items
• Coaches
• motivation for having youth participate, 29 items (Posthoc reliability 0.63 - 0.90)
• learning resources used to help youth prepare, 19 items
• demographics, 9 items
Youth
Gender (n = 57; 2 missing)
Class Status
Male:
51%
Female:
49%
Underclassmen:
54%
Upperclassmen:
46%
Years Participated in Hort CDE 1
Other CDEs besides Hort?
59%
2 or more
41%
Yes
66%
Coaches
Gender (n = 6; 1 missing) Male:
50%
Female:
50%
Participated as youth:
Yes
83%
Coach description
Agricultural Teacher/FFA Advisor
100%
Years Coaching Hort
11.33 years (SD = 14.82)
Youth were motivated to participate in a
competitive horticulture career development event
Youth Mean Motivation
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
3.68
3.29
3.08
3.06
2.76
*Note: Scale: 1 = None, 2 = A little, 3 = Somewhat, 4 = Quite A Lot, 5 = A Great Deal
Youth were motivated to participate in a
competitive horticulture career development event
and youth motivation was related to performance of
horticultural competencies
Relationships between Youth Motivation and Youth CDE Performance
CDE Performance
General
Product
Identification
Total CDE
Knowledge
Evaluation
Exam
Exam Score
Exam
Exam
Youth Motivation
Intrinsic
0.35*
0.34*
0.02
0.36*
Utility
0.26
0.32*
-0.04
0.30*
Attainment
0.28
0.33*
0.07
0.32*
Cost
0.06
0.17
0.15
0.14
Self-Efficacy
0.33*
0.33*
0.05
0.34*
Note. *Practically significant = medium effect size
Coaches’ motivation was related to youth motivation
Relationships between Youth Motivation and Coach Motivation
Coach Motivation
Intrinsic
Utility
Attainment
Cost
Self-Efficacy
.15
.14
.11
.14
-.08
.52**
.28
.36*
.05
-.23
Attainment
.21
.09
.08
.09
-.03
Cost
.25
.06
-.10
.12
-.05
Youth Motivation
Intrinsic
Utility
Self-Efficacy
.33*
.10
.10
.05
Note. Practically significant = *medium effect size or **large effect size
-.09
Coaches’ motivation was related to youth motivation
and youth performance of horticulture competencies
Relationships between Coach Motivation and Youth CDE Performance
General
Knowledge
Exam
Coach Motivation
Intrinsic
Utility
Attainment
CDE Performance
Product
Identification
Evaluation
Exam
Exam
Total CDE
Exam Score
.50**
.48*
.57**
.50**
-.03
-.02
.56**
.51**
.48*
.53**
-.03
.53**
Cost
.25
.26
.07
.26
Self-Efficacy
-.39*
-.57**
-.07
-.53**
Note. Practically significant = *medium effect size or **large effect size
Time spent preparing for the horticulture career
development event and learning resources used
by youth were related to youth’s overall
performance of horticultural competencies.
Relationships between Learning Resources and Youth CDE Performance
Exam
General
Product
Identification
Knowledge
Evaluation
Learning Resources
Old Tests or Quizzes
.42*
.40*
Flashcards
.22
.31*
Classroom Aids/Real.31*
.36*
Life Materials
Preparation Time
With Team
.30*
.31*
Alone
.30*
.34*
Total Hours
.39*
.43*
Note. *Practically significant = medium effect size
Total CDE
Score
-.14
-.00
.42*
.29
-.06
.34*
-.07
.01
.04
.32*
.32*
.42*
However, youth did not perform horticultural
competencies at a level required to be a
certified horticulture manager or technician in
the horticulture industry.
Average Exam Scores (%)
95
100
80
60
61
63
52
40
20
0
General
Knowledge
Identification
Product
Evaluation
Total CDE
Score
• Coaches clinic
– create learning environments that
• build competencies
• self-efficacy
– build youth’s competencies
• assessment tools of the event
• career and certification guidelines
• Learning resources and assessments should
reflect
– university course requirements
– industry certification programs
• Due to the small population and nature of the
study…
• Participants and contexts
– replications into events with similar contexts
– replications into events with differing contexts
• Measurements and impacts
– coaching strategies and learning resources prior to
event
– preparation of youth for future careers, including
STEM careers
• My Family and Friends
• Dr. Neil Knobloch
• Dr. Kathryn Orvis
• Dr. Levon Esters
• Graduate Students
• YDAE
Thank you!
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