Cli t t & li t Climate concepts & climate zones

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Cli t concepts
Climate
t & climate
li t zones
Internationellt Hållbart Byggande
Erik Johansson, HDM, 2012
Contents

Climate elements

Climate zones

Exercise: climate analysis
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2
Climatic elements

Solar radiation (shortwave)

Thermal radiation (longwave)

Cloud cover

Temperature

Rainfall

H idit
Humidity

Wind
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4
The sun-atmosphere-earth
p
system
18 jan-10
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5
The atmosphere

Total height: 100 km (Earth’s radius = 6400

Ozone layer: 15 – 35 km altitude

The troposphere
k )
km)


Lower part off the atmosphere: 8–18 km
above the Earth’s surface
Temperature from +15 (Earth) to –53°C
(upper boundary)
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6
The troposphere


Is the zone where “weather” occurs:
winds, clouds, water, pollution
Contains 75% of the mass of the
atmosphere: nitrogen, oxygen, water,
carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone
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7
Short- and longwave radiation

Sun: shortwave radiation: 0.1-3 µm



Ultra violet (UV) radiation
Visible light
Earth: longwave
g
radiation: infrared radiation ((IR),
) 3-80 µ
µm

“Low” temperature radiation
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Heating
g and
cooling of the earth
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11
Heating
g and
cooling of the earth
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12
Ways
y to measure solar
radiation

Sunshine duration (hours)

Energy/time and surface units


Daily total irradiation (MJ/m², day)
Continuous (hourly) irradiation (W/m²)
(W/m )
(1 W/m² = 1 J/s,m²)
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13
Sunshine duration

Piteå, 65°N (northern Sweden)



0
10
Los Angeles, 34°N



Dec:
June:
Jan:
July:
7
12
Kuala Lumpur,
p , 3°N


Dec:
June:
5
7
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14
Hourly radiation
(on a horizontal surface)
W/m²
W/m
Solar radiation in Fez,
Fez Morocco
1000
Summer
800
Winter
600
400
200
00
:0
0
03
:0
0
06
:0
0
09
:0
0
12
:0
0
15
:0
0
18
:0
0
21
:0
0
00
:0
0
0
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Thermal radiation (low temp.)

All bodies radiate heat according to
th fformula:
the
l
Q ((W/m 2 )      T 4
where T (K) = T(°C)+273
( = 5.67·10
(
5 67 10-88 W/m
W/ 4K,
K   0.9)
0 9)
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Radiation of heat
Surface
S
f
temperature
0°C
Radiation
R
di ti
(W/m²)
280
20°C
20
C
380
40°C
490
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Daytime heating of the air
SW–LW radiation
convection
conduction
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Surface absorptivity

Reflectivityy ((albedo)) of different
surfaces

Bare soil:
5–40% (dark/light)

Forest
5–20%
5
20%

Grass
16–26% (long/short)

Fresh snow:
95%
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Cooling by night
LW radiation
convection
conduction
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Effect of clouds


Less incoming solar radiation – lower
heating by day
Less outgoing longwave radiation –
lower cooling by night
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Diurnal temperature variations
clear
l
day
d
cloudy day
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23
Humidity

Air contains water vapour

Ways to measure humidity in the air:

Relative humidity (% of saturation)

Absolute humidity (g moisture/kg air)

Vapour Pressure (hPa)
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Max. moisture content
vs. air temperature
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Relative humidity
Absolute
Ab
l t
humidity
(g/kg)
Temperature (°C)
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Relative humidity
Absolute
Ab
l t
humidity
(g/kg)
Temperature (°C)
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Winds


Winds blow from higher to lower
pressures
The wind direction is modified due to
the Earth’s rotation, friction at the
Earth’s surface, etc.
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Winds: global circulations
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Winds: monsoons


The result of temperature differences of
the continents and the oceans
4-5
4
5 months N direction
direction, 4
4-5
5 months S
direction
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30
Area affected byy the
monsoons
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Summer monsoon
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Winter monsoon
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Local
sea breeze

Sunny
afternoons
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34
Ocean currents
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35
El Niño



Varmare strömmar i östra Stilla havet
runt jultid
Varmare ytvatten  mer regn i västra
Sydamerika
Starka El Niño-år kan påverka klimatet
på hela jorden
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37
La Niña




Motsatsen till El Niño (kallare strömmar)
Vindarna från Stilla havet mot Australien
är starkare
Mer vatten förs mot Australiens kust –
kraftig molnbildning
Australiska kontinenten får betydligt mer
y
får torka))
nederbörd ((Sydamerika
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Heating
g and
cooling of the earth
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Greenhouse gases

Water vapour

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Methane

Nitro s o
Nitrous
oxides
ides

Ozone

CFCs
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41
Climate zones
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Parameters affecting
g climate
zones

Latitude

Altitude

Low and high pressure zones

Global wind
ind patterns

Proximity to oceans and large seas

Ocean currents
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Latitude zones

Tropic of Capricorn:
-23.5°

Tropic of Cancer:
+23.5°
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Incoming
g and outgoing
g g
radiation at different latitudes
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Latitude zones

Low latitudes:
0-30°N/S

Mid-latitudes:
30°N/S-60°N/S

High latitudes:
>60°N/S
>60
N/S
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47
Köppen’s climate classification

Main catagories:
A. Equatorial (warm humid)
B Arid (hot dry)
B.
C. Temperate
D. Cold temperate
E Arctic
E.
H. Mountain climates
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Köppen’s climate classification
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49
Atkinson (Modified Köppen)
1. Cold
2. Temperate (moderate)
3. Hot dry

Maritime desert climate
4. Warm humid


Warm humid island climate
Sub-types:


Composite/monsoon climate
Tropical highland climate
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Simplified climate zone
classification according to Köppen
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51
1 – Cold

Moscow ((Russia),
), 56°N
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2 – Temperate

Rome ((Italy),
y), 42°N
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4 – Warm humid (equatorial)

Brazzaville ((Congo),
g ), 4°S
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Warm humid (monsoon)

Bombay
y (India),
(
), 18°N
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55
3 – Hot dry (arid)

Alice Springs
p g ((Australia),
), 23°S
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56
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