1. Classification of the transported goods

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Containers, container handling
History of the container
Idea of rationalizing goods transport by avoiding the constant loading and unloading from one
means of transport to another.
1930s at the port of Hoboken - Malcolm P. McLean:
Loading complete trucks onto ships, in order to transport them as close as possible to their
destination.
Development of standardized containers and trailers, moved by tractors.
Later, the trailers were also left behind and the ships transported just the containers.
First Containership, Ideal-X,
1956
Container design and types
ISO containers
Basic dimensions and masses of freight containers ISO 1
Container design and types
ISO containers
Basic dimensions and masses of freight containers ISO 2
Advantage: worldwide utilized
Disadvantage: inner dimensions
don’t fit EURO-pallets
Container design and types
Unit 45’
Container design and types
Swap bodies
Advantages:
Disadvantages:
dimensions compatible with EURO-pallets,
lower tara weight,
multiple handling possibilities
cannot be (or max. 4 layers) stacked
lower strength
Container design and types
Comparison of swap bodies and semi-trailers
Swap bodies:
- Multimodal
- Low tara weight
Semi trailers:
- Monomodal
- Greater inner height
Container design and types
General purpose containers, dry cargo containers or box containers.
Features:
Closed steel construction
End / side doors
No ventilation
Corner fittings
Forklift pockets
Container design and types
Open-sided containers
Open-top containers
Container design and types
Open-sided, open-top containers
Platforms, flatracks
(collapsible end or
fixed)
Container design and types
Bulk containers
Container liners
Standard containers -> bulk containers
Loading:
Pneumatic
Belt conveyors
Unloading:
Tilting
Filling domes
Container design and types
Bulk containers
Unloading by tilting
max 30”
Unloading through side openings
Container design and types
Tank containers
Light weight structure
Swap-tank
Container design and types
Flexitanks
Non-hazardous liquids in
standard container
Container design and types
Refrigerated containers
There are two basic types of refrigerated container (reefer) which have each developed differently
over the course of time:
Porthole refrigerated containers, also called insulated or Conair containers, do not have their own
refrigeration unit. They are thus reliant on an external supply of cold air. Refrigeration units of various
types, permanently installed on the ship, permanently installed in the terminal or clip-on units for
individual containers, are used for this.
Container design and types
Refrigerated containers
There are two basic types of refrigerated container (reefer) which have each developed differently
over the course of time:
Porthole refrigerated containers, also called insulated or Conair containers, do not have their own
refrigeration unit. They are thus reliant on an external supply of cold air. Refrigeration units of various
types, permanently installed on the ship, permanently installed in the terminal or clip-on units for
individual containers, are used for this. (see below)
Integral refrigerated containers, on the other hand, have an integrated refrigeration unit, which is
generally powered nowadays using a 3-phase electric power supply
Container design and types – container handling
Roll-off containers (ARC)
Max. length: ca. 6 m
Max. height: ca. 2,3 m
Application:
- Bulk material
- Special containerized equipment
- Door-to-door transport
Handling with specialized lifting truck
Chain-system
Rope-system
Hook-system
Rail – road possible (ACTS)
Container handling
Lifting at the top corner fitting
Spreader
Twistlock
Ship to shore container gantry cranes
Container handling
Lifting at the top corner fitting
Automatic stacking crane systems
Rubber tyred gantry crane
Container handling
Lifting at the top corner fitting
Reachstacker
Lifting at the forklift pockets
Straddle carriers
Container handling lift trucks
Container handling
Side loaders
Container handling
Grapple arm lift
The spreader can adjust its length to lift
containers from 20’ to 40’ using ISO floating
twistlocks. It also features grapple arms to lift
trailers, swap bodies (C715, C745) and
bottom lifting containers. Powered Pile Slope
(PPS), tilt (optional), rotation and side shift
features enable easy location onto
containers or near pick-up points achieved
with smooth control technology.
Folding legs
Special truck required
Limited load on the legs
Requires great accuracy
Container handling
Rail to road systems
(special truck+carriage)
Mobiler
ACTS
Container handling
Rail to road systems
(special railway carriage)
Cargobeamer
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