Document 15515121

Non-Communicable Diseases
 Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a
vector, or the environment
 Cardiovascular Disease is one of the most common and
preventable diseases
 Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
 More than 100 types
 Occurs because of DNA damage
 A buildup can cause a tumor
Abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body
2 types: benign and malignant
 Benign grows slowly and is noncancerous but could interfere
with normal body functions
 Malignant spreads to other tissues and is cancerous
 Metastasis
Malignant tumors spread throughout the body, divide, and form
new tumors
Types of Cancer
 Lymphomas – affect immune system
 Leukemias – affect blood-forming organs
 Carcinomas – affect glands and body linings
including skin
 Sarcomas – affect connective tissues
Risk Factors for Cancer
 Exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing substance)
 Tobacco and UV light are most common
 Tobacco and tobacco smoke contain at least 43
different carcinogens
 215,000 new cases of lung cancer related to smoking are
diagnosed each year
 Radiation (UV light)
 Skin that is tanned is your skin’s reaction to damage
from the UV light
Risk Factors for Cancer
 STD’s
 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer
 Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer
 Dietary Factors
 High fat, low fiber diets often linked with colon, breast,
and prostate cancers
 Heredity
 Family history can determine if you are at a higher risk
Treatments for Cancer
 Surgery to remove cancerous masses
 Radiation therapy uses radioactive substances to kill
cancer cells and shrink cancerous masses
 Chemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells
 Immunotherapy activates a person’s immune system to
recognize specific cancers and destroy them
 Hormone therapy uses medicines to interfere with the
production of certain hormones that facilitate cancer
 Type 1 and Type 2
 A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert
sugar into energy
 Pancreas produces too little or no insulin
 Insulin helps glucose enter body cells
 Type 1 accounts for 5 – 10% of all diabetes cases
 Body fails to produce insulin and glucose builds up in the
 Cells begin attacking and destroying cells in the pancreas that
produce insulin
 Daily doses of insulin are required through injections or a
specially attached pump
 Type 2 accounts for 90-95% of all cases
 Usually appears in adults over age 40
 Disease is developing in younger adults, teens, and
 Body is unable to use insulin properly or is not making
 Low-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited
in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help
manage diabetes