Ming and Qing Dynasties

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Ming and Qing
Dynasties
Alex Anduze

Began with the overthrow of the Mongols-1368

First years were characterized by effective government and a
strong economy
◦ Population and food stocks grew
◦ Confucianism reemerged
◦ International trade continued, despite cautious rulers
Ming Dynasty: Beginnings

All powerful emporer ruled the empire

Capitol: Beijing- Emperor ruled from the Forbidden City

Civil service bureaucracy was reestablished

Army- 1 million troops
Political Characteristics

16th century Ming China had more commercial activity than
any other nation in the world

Large percentage of people were merchants and traders

Port cities grew and were very clean, unlike today
◦ Macao
◦ Guangzhou
◦ Hangzhou
◦ Shanghai
Economic Progress

Attitude of time was that the Middle Kingdom needed little
from anyone else

Portuguese and Dutch were the only Europeans allowed to
trade inside of China

Contact and exchange of culture between Japan and China
were prominent

Jesuit missionaries, led by Matteo Ricci, tried to convert the
Chinese to Catholicism but failed
Cultural Contact With Outsiders

Series of weak and corrupt emperors

Over-extended to the north and west

Peasants rebelled against the weak government

Eventually, the Manchus from the north overthrew the Ming
Dynasty in 1644
Decline of the Ming

Manchus gain control over Beijing-1644

Conquer all of China near the end of the 17th century,
establishing the Qing Empire

Qing were able rulers: China grew to its largest size under
their rule and was the largest country in the world
Qing Dynasty:Beginnings

Qing Dynasty had two great rulers
◦ Kangxi: 1661-1722
◦ Qianlong: 1736-1795

During the 130 years that these two men ruled, China grew to
become a prosperous and powerful empire

Qing leaders separated Manchus and Chinese
◦ Intermarriage was prohibited
◦ Highest government officials were all Manchus
Political Organization

Unlike the Ming who had a commercial economy, the Qing
relied on agriculture more than trade

The work of a peasant farmer was seen as more honest and
worthy of respect than that of a merchant

Men had almost absolute control over women
◦ Foot binding started
◦ Widows were encouraged to commit suicide if their
husbands died
Economic and Social
Characteristics

Porcelain, calligraphy, painting: major forms of art

Confucianism stayed strong

Many of the people of China were educated

Most famous novels of the time were Book of the Golden
Lotus and the Dream of the Red Chamber
Cultural Influences

Weak rulers after Kangxi and Qianglong

Economic rivalries between Britain and China led to the
Opium War

Eventually the dynastay crumbled due to these factors
combined with civil unrest, flooding, and famine
Collapse of the Qing
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