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RICHARD ROGERS
Nishith Singh, b arch (4th yr.)
About
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Born 23 july 1933 in Florence,Italy.
Career
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Attended the Architectural Association School
of Architecture in London, before graduating
from Yale School of Architecture in 1962.
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At Yale he met fellow students Jesse Mccartney
& Norman Foster and on returning to England
he set up architectural practice as Team 4 with
Foster and their respective girlfriends, the
sisters Georgie and Wendy Cheesman.
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In 1967 the practice split up,and Rogers joined
Renzo Piano.
After working with Piano, Rogers established
the Richard Rogers Partnership in 1976. This
became Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners in
2007. The firm maintains offices in London,
Barcelona, Madrid, and Tokyo.
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Honours
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Rogers was knighted in 1991 by Queen
Elizabeth II. He was awarded the RIBA Royal
Gold Medal in 1985. He received a Golden
Lion for Lifetime Achievement at the 10th
Mostra di Architettura di Venezia. In 2006, he
was awarded the Stirling Prize for Terminal 4
of Barajas Airport and in 2009, for Maggie's
Centre in London
He was created Baron Rogers of Riverside, of
Chelsea in 1996. He sits as a Labour Peer in
the House of Lords.
Rogers has been awarded honorary degrees
from Oxford Brookes University and the
University of Kent, and was awarded the
2007 Pritzker Prize, architecture's highest
honour.
Rogers was appointed Companion of Honour
(CH) in the 2008 Birthday Honours.
Theory
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Cities: are the physical framework of our society, the generator of
civil values, the engine of our economy and the heart of our culture.
Public domain: Public space between buildings influences both the
built form and the civic quality of the city, be they streets, squares or
parks. A balance between the public and private domain is central
to the practice's design approach.
Legibility: The structure of buildings set the scale, form and rhythm
of the architectural environment, within which change and
improvisation can take place.
Flexibility:Today's buildings are more like evolving landscapes than
classical temples in which nothing can be added and nothing can be
removed.
Energy: Architects have a major role to play, given the fact that 75
per cent of global energy consumption is produced by buildings and
transportation.
Case study:
Lloyds Building, London
Site plan
Section
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1reception
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2.exhibition
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3.underwriters
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4.viewing gallery
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5atrium
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6.office
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7.roof terrace
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8.cloakrooms
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9.plant
Lowerbasement plan
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1.Boiler
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2.substation
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3generator
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4chillers
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5maintainance staff
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6air handling plant
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7strong room
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8goods lift
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9vehicledock
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10vehicle lift
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11Squash court
Upper basement plan
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Staff mess room
Mail room
Female
Male lavotories
Cleaners
Liveried staff
Telephone exchange
Offices
cloakroom
kitchen
Black box park
Old special dining
Lower ground level plan
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Staff mess room
2 . mail room
3. female lovatories
4.male lovatories
5.maintainence
6.cleaners
7.liveried staff
8.telephone exchange
9.offices
10.cloakrooms
11.kitchens
12. black box park
13.old special dining room
Ground level plan
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Underwriters entrance
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Restaurant
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Bar

Kitchen
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Conference room

Exhibition space

library
Galleries 5and 6
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1.Atrium
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2.Office space
Galleries 11

Atrium
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Special dining room

Adam room
Client: Corporation of Lloyd's of London
Bussiness nature: Insurance
Design Team:
Richard Rogers Partnership
Structural Engineer:
Ove Arup & Partners
Services Engineer:
Ove Arup & Partners
Quantity Surveyor:
Monk Dunstone Mahon & Sears
Lighting:
Friederich Wagner of Liccttehnische Planung
Acoustics:
Sandy Brown Associates
GENERAL
INFORMATION
Leadenhall Street in the heart of the
financial district of the city of London.
The site is awkwardly shaped due to
the medieval character of London’s
street plan. Typical of medieval
streets, the streets surrounding the
Lloyds Building are tight and winding,
providing a sharp contrast between
solid and void, between building and
street.
SITE
Lloyds Building 1978-86, London
Description
twelve stories to the
north, stepping down to six stories to the south,
The Lloyds Building, consisting of
was a replacement for the previous buildings which Lloyds of London
occupied but found to be too small for its continued growth.
Presently, the Lloyds Building with its 52,200 square metres gross area
(37,500 square metres net area) is a 66 percent increase over the
Cooper buildings it replaced. "The Room" takes all the area of the
ground floor and extends into the upper second, third, and fourth
floors. Office spaces take up the remaining upper floors.
GENERAL
INFORMATION
Requirements
The Room – required large open adaptive space
Dating back to the 17th century, Lloyds of London has today transformed
itself into a modern market place operating on the principles of a
traditional market. Composed of a society of underwriters, each having
their individual stall in the Lloyd's market, the efficiency and success of
Lloyd's depends on the interaction between individuals and in the contact
gained from working in a large open space, an open market, called "The
Room".
Expansion – continue growth leads to need of expansion and flexible
structural and services layout
The Corporation of Lloyds of London had already moved several times in
attempt to suit its continued growth before acquiring the site on Leadenhall
Street in the 1920’s. During the World War II, German bombs flattened the
adjacent sites; however, the Cooper building in which Lloyds resided
survived. In 1950, Lloyds, foreseeing a further need for expansion bought
the surrounding sites and began to build the "new" Lloyds. This new
building, completed in 1958, was linked to the 1928 building by a 38-foot
bridge spanning over Lime Street.
Continued growth of Lloyds quickly led them to reevaluate their situation
and again look for ways to expand. By the 1960s and 1970s, the 1958
building was already too small and Lloyds now began to look at 1928
building as a possibility in meeting their expansionist ideals. The 1928
building ultimately became their solution. Although listed (grade II) by the
government, it was allowed by the City to be demolished in 1981 in place
of the current Lloyds Building, which was completed in 1986.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Natural lighting
Stepping Form
The Lloyds Building, consisting of twelve
stories to the north, stepping down to
six stories to the south, sunlight
penetration thus utilized.
the incorporation of the atrium
The atrium was a key feature in
the reduction of the loads coming
from lighting. The atrium
increases in volume and surface
area as it progresses toward the
south.
The office levels increase as the
progress northward allowing a
large surface area for diffused
light coming from the north.
A significant amount of natural
lighting reaching down into "The
Room" demonstrates the success
in the design of the atrium.
Furthermore, every location in
the building is located within 7
meters from a natural source of
light.
Strategy 1 – natural lighting
the served and servant
It was Kahn’s notion of ‘served’ and
‘servant’ spaces inspired Rogers. In the
case of Llyods, servant spaces concentrate
in towers.
Served zone
Servant towers
with incorporation
of raised flooring
system and ceiling
viod
Strategy 2 – served & servant
Served zone
Servant towers with incorporation of
raised flooring system and ceiling
void
The services towers, 3 of them
principally for fire fighting and
escape.
The other 3 for lifts, lavatories and
risers, are the visual expression of
the Kahnian doctrine of ‘served and
servant spaces’
Servant tower –plan
The towers carry majors plant rooms on top
The towers form a flexible framework for the ventilation plant, lifts,
service risers and lavatories (all the 33 lavatory units were
manufactured and fitted out) attached to them.
Four towers carry major plant-rooms, with mains services running
vertically down the towers and connected into each level of the
building.
The largest services duct contained the air-conditioning, with
lesser duct for water, drains, power and electronics
Main services running vertically down
the towers
Tower – vertical planning
Typical detailed layout
services tower
Served zone
All the 33 prefabricated lavatory pods
were brought to the site on trucks and
then hoisted into position prior to linking
up to the service riser
service risers with ducts for water, drains,
power and electronics running vertically
down the towers and connected into each
level of the building
Access and escape routes were provided
by means of lifts and staircases
The largest services duct contained the
air-conditioning running vertically down
the towers and connected into each level
of the building.
Tower – detailed
layout
Air conditioning
Sub-Air
Air conditioning system
ALUZINC duct extracting air through light fittings
stale air is extracted
from above through the
multi-function
luminaries
The extracted air is passed to the perimeter of the
building and forced through the triple-layered exterior
glazing – ensuring an almost zero heat loss from the
offices during the winter and reducing heat gain in
summer.
Clear double glazed window operable at office
Conditioned air is distributed through
a sub-floor plenum into the offices
Supply ductworks
Extracted ductworks
The operable window allows individuals the ability to "acquire" fresh air if the feel it necessary. The placement of the window encourages
individuals to work while sitting rather than standing since that is where the views are held. It also allows interior light to be reflected back into
the interior during the night and diffuses direct sunlight during the day. The need to take mechanical systems into careful consideration when
designing energy conscious builidings is made evident when one compares the the overall space that they consume in a building in relation to
the human being
Air cond. & heat cycle1
Served zone
The largest services duct contained the airconditioning running vertically down the towers
and connected into each level of the building.
Air cond.
The heat cycle
Heat from the return air is collected in the
basement sprinkler tanks and re-used. The internal
concrete soffits and slabs are ‘heat sinks’,
absorbing heat during occupation and being cooled
off overnight using naturally chilled night air.
This allow cooling to follow a 24-hour cycle and
reduces the peak cooling requirement.
Air handling equipment is located at basement
level and in four service tower plant-rooms.
Air cond. & heat cycle2
boiler
Sub-station
generators
chillers
Air handling plants
Lower basement room provided
services for lower basement level
to G/F level
Strategy 2 -lower
Basement
Served zone
Access and escape routes were
provided by means of lifts and
staircases
Fire protection
Structural system
Structural system
Description
The basic form of the building is that of a large atrium, surmounted by
steel and glass arched roof, surrounded by galleries (12levels of them
on the north side) which contain the bulk of the underwriting space
and a variable a mount of lettable space, depending on the changing
accommodation need of the Llyods market itself.
The floors were constructed on reinforced concrete columns on a
10.8x18metre grid. The load is transferred between the columns and
the floor beams by means of a pre-casted bracket. Pre-cast ‘yokes’
cast into inverted U-beam transmit the loads of the floor grid to the
perimeter columns via the brackets.
The great columns, both the exterior of the building and within the
atrium, stand proud of the cladding, increasing the highly articulated
‘Gothic’ effects of Llyods. External cross-braces are actually made of
steel tube concrete grid open to view.
description
Design of the atrium roof
A lightweight contrast to the
concrete superstructure of the
building
Atrium Light steel roof
Columns, Beams and Floors
The floors were constructed on reinforced
concrete columns on a 10.8x18metre grid. The
load is transferred between the columns and
the floor beams by means of a pre-casted
bracket. Pre-cast ‘yokes’ cast into inverted Ubeam transmit the loads of the floor grid to the
perimeter columns via the brackets. The great
columns, both the exterior of the building and
within the atrium, stand proud of the cladding,
increasing the highly articulated ‘Gothic’ effects
of Llyods. External cross-braces are actually
made of steel tube concrete grid open to view.
By using beams with parallel sides
and sharp arises Rogers emphasizes
that the floor is a grid not a solid,
coffered slab
floor and column
‘Yokes’
concrete bracket
Main concrete columns
In situ concrete was latter substituted. U-beams transfer the
loads of the floor grid to the columns via a bracket system
The waffle slab
Pre-cast concrete bracket and ‘yoke’ assemblies
Pre-cast concrete bracket
yoke
assemble
Services supports
Axonometrics of
the pre-cast
concrete ‘kit of
parts’ for the
sevices towers
services support
Sectional detail - structure
Pre-cast concrete bracket
In situ concrete beam
In-situ concrete column
100mm in situ concrete slab
Permanent steel
formwork
incorporating
acoustic panel
Painted ductwork support bracket
Anodized Aluminum wind bracing
section
Photos
Photos
photos- Overall
view
A significant amount of natural lighting
reaching down into G/F demonstrates the
success in the design of the atrium.
Photos – atrium
mains services running vertically
down the towers and connected
into each level of the building
through the raised floor and
ceiling void.
Photos -connection of the services
The layers of structure, services and cladding articulate the elevation
photos - services
Servant towers with incorporation of raised flooring system and ceiling void
Photos – raised flooring system & ceiling void
photos– in situ concrete column & pre-cast
concrete bracket
All the 33 prefabricated
lavatory pods were
brought to the site on
trucks and then hoisted
into position prior to
linking up to the service
riser
Photos – prefabricated lav.
THANK YOU
submitted by: Nishith Singh, b arch (4th yr.)
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