From Fibers to Fabric:

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From Fibers to
Fabric:
Step by step process of
the fiber to the yarn to
the fabric.
Types of
Fibers
Natural Fibers
• Sources:
–Animals
–Plants
Protein Fibers
Cellulose
Fibers
Manufactured or
Synthetic Fibers
•Chemical or Protein
Name
Spandex
•Generic Name
•Trade Name
Lycra®
Types
• Acetate
• Acrylic
• Nylon
• Polyester
•Rayon
•Spandex
•Triacetate
Yarns
•Fibers overlapped and twisted together
Types
• Spun
• Monofilament
• Multifilament
Twist
• amount varies and increases strength
• very low twist - just barely holds together
• low twist - fluffy - weak
• average twist for short fibers
• high twist hard and compact
Texture
• given to manufactured fibers
• adds bulk, stretch, less static
Types of Texture
Fabric Construction
• woven of knit yarns
• fibers matted together and
glued
Woven
Fabrics
Plain Weave
Satin Weave
Twill Weave
Basket Weave
Pile Weave
Knits
• Stretches
• Returns to Original
Shape
• Wrinkle Resistant
Warp Knits
• vertical rows of loops
- tricot jersey
- lace
- raschel knit
Weft Knit
• loops made as yarn added
in crosswise direction
– double knit
– jersey
– rib knit
– pile knit jersey
– velour
– purl knit
Non Woven
• no grain
• no stretch or give
• requires special
sewing techniques
Non Wovens
Fabric Finishes
• changes fiber properties
to create a better product
Permanent Finish
• heat set
• improves fabric resistance to
wrinkling
• stains difficult to remove
• no need to iron
Shrinkage Resistant
• reduce shrinkage
Soil Release
• aids in removing
dirt, oil, and
grease
Flame Retardant
• resists burning
Dyeing
• changes color of finished product
• can be done at fiber, yarn, and fabric
stage
• printing is done at fabric stage only
Care Labels
• Law Required
- Fiber Content
- Care Instructions
- Country of Origin
Care Requirement
• washing method
• drying method
• bleach type
• iron temperature
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