20th Century India

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20
Century India
Rags to Riches
Pre-WWII
Had
been run
by Brits for
200+ years
–100,000 Brits
controlled
450 million
Indians!
The Crown Jewel
British
East
India Company
saw India as
money maker
–Indian
Textiles and
Spices
Benefits of UK rule
Medicine,
transportation,
communication
education and
democracy
Drawbacks to UK Rule
Loss
of
culture, 30
million die
from crop
changes
Early Efforts at Independence
Sepoy
Rebellion
Indian National
Congress
(1885) formed
Congress Party
–Muslim make
Muslim League
in 1906
Enter Mohandas Gandhi
Civil
Disobedience
Hindu
Nationalist
Effects of
used
Indian Troops
WWII
without seeking
Congress Party
approval
–Fuels Separatist
Fires…
After the war, UK
cost of empire too
much…
Britain
Independence and Partitions
July
16, 1947
Two new states
created, Hindu
India and Muslim
East and West
Pakistan
–Mass relocation
through India…
–VIOLENCE
More Violence and a Martyr
Over
1 million
dead in ethnic
cleansings
Jan. 30, 1948
Gandhi
assassinated by
Hindu
Nationalist for
supporting
partition
:(
The New Nations and Peace???
Jawaharlal
Nehru, a secular
Hindu, and
Mohammad Ali
Jinnah, a
Muslim, become
the first leaders
for each country
Walking Through Kashmir… DUCK!
Hindu
governor
brought Muslim
population into
India at the
partition.
–BOTH SIDES
WANT IT…WAR!
–Still at odds… and
NUCLEAR POWERS
A Free India
To
aid poor, Nehru
turns to Socialism
–Economy weak,
population on
the rise…
–Tried to help
lower castes and
Stressed industry
–Made movement
to counter bipolar world
Indira Gandhi
1966:
Nehru’s
daughter elected
Population growth
hurting economy
Violent Sikh
separatists attack
–6/84 -Raid on the
Golden Temple
–500 Dead
Another Dead Gandhi
Two
Sikh
bodyguards
killed her in
retaliation
Another Gandhi, er, Nehru
Rajiv
Gandhi, son of
Indira, in power
Brings capitalism
(and corruption?)
–Bombed for
economic changes
–Irony – these
changes saved
India…
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
World’s
largest
democracy
Excellent
economic growth
Still
split by
ethnic and
religious factions
Terrible poverty
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