Ind in Africa, India, Latin Am

Striving for Independence
Africa, India and Latin America
Traditional West Africa
• West Africa (Ghana, Songhai & Mali)
– Camel facilitated travel & trade
– Trade facilitated spread of Islam
• Slave Trade
– 16th Century Europeans find this most profitable
Traditional East Africa
• East Africa (Swahili States)
– Traded with Middle East & Asia
– Established by Muslim traders
Traditional North Africa
• North Africa (Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli
& Egypt)
– Ottoman traders brought gold & salt
to the region
– They returned metal-ware, cloth,
horses & glass
• Age of Imperialism
– Europeans want African resources
– Europeans want captive markets for
their manufactured goods
Berlin Conference
• Portugal wants a plan for African
– Otto Von Bismarck uses the opportunity to
expand German control in Africa
• Europe divided up the continent but kept
the Congo River basin open to trade
Direct vs Indirect Rule
• Direct Rule:
– Centralized administration stressed assimilation
• Make Africa “civilized” (European)
• Divide & rule – weaken indigenous powers
• Indirect Rule:
– used indigenous rulers to administer colonies
• maintained an inferior role
• increased divisions between ethnic groups
• gave power to certain "big men" who had never had
it before in pre-colonial history
• Independence movements 1922-93
• At least 20 new nations emerge
– Botswana, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana,
Kenya Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius,
Nigeria, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Somalia, South Africa, Sudan,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
• Independence primarily in 1960
• At least 20 new nations
– Algeria, Benin, Burkino Faso, Cameroon,
Central African Rep., Chad, Comoros, Congo,
Cote d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Gabon, Guinea,
Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger,
Senegal, Togo, Tunisia
• Independence begins in 1943
• Created 2 new countries
• Eritrea and Libya
India, the land & people
• Majority were Hindu, except in the
north where most were Muslim
– Urbanization sparked by drought
– Too many native languages – English
becomes language of business &
British in India
• British colonization
meant end of
cotton & steel
– British want raw
– India forced to buy
British products
British colonists in India
Gandhi, Nehru and the INC
• Mohandas K. Gandhi rose
to prominence by
advocating non-violent
resistance to British rule
• Jawaharlal Nehru spoke
out against British
• Indian National congress
favored Nehru
Nehru - Gandhi
End of British Rule
• After WWII British decide to free
– Muhammad Ali Jinnah & Muslims want
Muslim state
– Nehru & Indian National Congress
opposed this
• British break northwestern India off
for Muslims - Pakistan
Mexico, the land &
• Mexican society was divided into “haves”
and “have nots”
– Very tiny middle class with no political power
• Under Pres. Díaz infrastructure improves
– Wealthy prosper – adopt European cultures
– Educated middle class see this as a sign of
– Díaz’ failure to protect Mexico from foreign