Modern India: The Nehru-Gandhi Dynasty

Modern India: The Nehru-Gandhi Dynasty
 India and Pakistan become independent from Britain in 1947
 Millions (mostly Hindus and Sikhs) migrate:
o Pakistan- Muslim
o India- Hindu dominated
 Perhaps as many as a million people die in violence
India under Jawaharlal Nehru
 Prime Minister of India (1947-64)
 Integrated princely states into India
 Fought First Indo-Pakistani War (1947-1948)
o Hindu prince of Kashmir, a Muslim dominated territory, chooses to join India
o Pakistan invades and is stopped by India
o Kashmir is split between India and Pakistan
o Three more wars follow (1965, 1971, 1999)
 New constitution adopted
o India becomes a multi-state Parliamentary democracy
o Largest democracy in the world
 Pursues socialist economic policies
 Nationalizes (government takeover) major industries
 Develops industry, agriculture and infrastructure
 Promotes education
 Improves rights of women and lower castes
 Leads “Non-alignment Movement” during Cold War
o Didn’t ally with US or USSR
 Dies of natural causes in 1964 while still in power
India under Indira Gandhi
 Prime Minister of India (1966-77, 1980-84)
 Nehru’s daughter, no relation to Mohandas
 Helps Bangladesh win independence in Third Indo-Pakistani War (1971)
o East Pakistan devastated by a cyclone
o West Pakistan dominated government responds slowly
 Sides with Soviet Union in the Cold War
 Tests a “peaceful” nuclear bomb in 1974
 Improves agriculture with “Green Revolution” and “Operation Flood”
 Indira the Dictator
o Found guilty of election irregularities
o Faces protests and strikes
o Declares a state of emergency and suspends civil liberties
o Loses election of 1977 (wins in 1980)
 Faces Sikh separatist movement in Punjab region
o Raids Golden Temple in Amritsar
o Sikh resistance crushed
o Indira killed by two of her own Sikh bodyguards
India under Rajiv Gandhi
 Prime Minister of India (1984-89)
 Son of Indira
 Encourages capitalist reforms and foreign investment
 Encourages science and technology (telecommunications, computing, space program)
 Brokers peace deal in Sri Lanka between govt. and Tamil rebels
o Sends peacekeeping troops
o Ends up fighting rebels
o India later withdraws
 Loses image as “Mr. Clean” after scandal
o Govt. officials took bribes over military contracts
o Lost election in 1989
 Assassinated by female Tamil suicide bomber while campaigning in 1991
Sonia Gandhi
 Rajiv’s Italian-born wife
 Head of the Congress Party
o Congress Party has held power for most of India’s history
o Current Prime Minister is Narendra Modi from the BJP, a former tea seller
Complicit in Hindu attacks on Muslims?
Rahul Gandhi
Rajiv and Sonia’s son
Congress Party’s candidate for prime minister