ECHO/ DOPPLER CARDIOGRAPHY A diagnostic Study that reveals information about: The structure and function of the heart Cardiac hemodynamics of the heart
THEORY AND TECHNIQUE OF THE STUDY Utilizes the Application of Ultasonic waves being reflected back on hitting a structure This is done utilizing a transducer that both sends out the beam and then receives it back The transducer can have one crystal or multiple crystals
THEORY AND TECHNIQUE CONT’D: Utilizing the technique of doppler with ultrasound allows the ability to quantitate the direction and velocity of objects
APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE: M mode echo 2 DIMENSIONAL ECHO: Tran thoracic Echo- transducer directly on the chest wall Transesophageal Echo- probe placed into the esophagus and stomach Stress echocardiography- Tran thoracic echo at rest and post stress or exercise
APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE: Doppler can be viewed as: Continuous wave- continuous transmission of signal with 2 nd transducer available to receive the signal Pulsed Doppler- same probe transmits, waits an the receives Color flow- vectors directions given colors, usually blue if flow is away from transducer and red if goes toward the transducer.
THIS TECHNIQUE ALLOWS THE EVALUATION OF: Cardiac Chambers- size and motion or function The thickness of the walls of the heart Abnormal Objects in the heart: tumors or masses Valvular structure (size and shape) Valvular function (thickness, stenosis, or leakage) Blood flow- hemodynamics Other pathologies- fluid: pericardial effusion
THIS TECHNIQUE ALLOWS THE EVALUATION OF: Other objects- vegetations etc.
Mechanical valves Pacemaker wires
ABNORMAL IMAGES LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION
VALVULAR DISEASE AORTIC VALVE