Echocardiography

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ECHO/ DOPPLER CARDIOGRAPHY  A diagnostic Study that reveals information about: The structure and function of the heart Cardiac hemodynamics of the heart

THEORY AND TECHNIQUE OF THE STUDY  Utilizes the Application of Ultasonic waves being reflected back on hitting a structure  This is done utilizing a transducer that both sends out the beam and then receives it back  The transducer can have one crystal or multiple crystals

THEORY AND TECHNIQUE CONT’D:  Utilizing the technique of doppler with ultrasound allows the ability to quantitate the direction and velocity of objects

APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE:  M mode echo  2 DIMENSIONAL ECHO:  Tran thoracic Echo- transducer directly on the chest wall  Transesophageal Echo- probe placed into the esophagus and stomach  Stress echocardiography- Tran thoracic echo at rest and post stress or exercise

APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE:  Doppler can be viewed as:  Continuous wave- continuous transmission of signal with 2 nd transducer available to receive the signal  Pulsed Doppler- same probe transmits, waits an the receives  Color flow- vectors directions given colors, usually blue if flow is away from transducer and red if goes toward the transducer.

THIS TECHNIQUE ALLOWS THE EVALUATION OF: Cardiac Chambers- size and motion or function The thickness of the walls of the heart Abnormal Objects in the heart: tumors or masses Valvular structure (size and shape) Valvular function (thickness, stenosis, or leakage) Blood flow- hemodynamics Other pathologies- fluid: pericardial effusion

THIS TECHNIQUE ALLOWS THE EVALUATION OF: Other objects- vegetations etc.

Mechanical valves Pacemaker wires

ABNORMAL IMAGES  LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION

VALVULAR DISEASE  AORTIC VALVE

MITRAL VALVE

CARDIOMYOPATHY

PACEMAKER WIRE

STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

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