Critical Cause and Effect The Columbian Exchange

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SECTION 1
SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
COMPETE
What is the Line of Demarcation
imaginary line around the world – Portugal
could claim all non-Christian lands to the
east of the line. Spain could claim the nonChristian lands to the west.
Why did Spain and Portugal want to
control territory in the Americas?
Spread of Christianity – missionaries
Expand their empire
Wanted to become rich
They could gain power and security
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas
moved the line 800 miles farther west.
How did the Treaty of Tordesillas
affect Portugal?
Allowed Portugal to claim much of
eastern South America, which later
became the colony of Brazil
What is Mercantilism?
when a country had a favorable
balance of trade if it had more exports
than imports.
How did colonies help with
mercantilism?
Provided mines that produced gold and
silver
Produced crops that could be traded for
gold and silver
They served as a market for the home
country
What did each of the following
explorers accomplish?
Amerigo Vespucci
Found a new continent that a map
maker called America after him.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Led an expedition through the jungles of
Panama and reached Pacific Ocean.
Claimed the area for Spain
Ferdinand Magellan
Killed in a local war in the Philippines but
his crew was the first to sail around the
world.
Hernando Cortes
Led several battles in Central America
where they defeated the Aztecs and took
over the land for Spain. Spain built
Mexico City there.
Francisco Pizarro
Defeated the Incas for Spain. Took the
area and named it Peru.
What were the 4 reasons for
Spanish Victories?
Spread of European diseases
Excellent soldiers and sailors – superior
weapons
Made alliances with Native Americans who
were enemies of the Aztecs and Incas
Conquistadors acted brutally toward Native
Americans under their control
SECTION 2
EUROPEAN COMPETITION IN
NORTH AMERICAS
Why did these explorers search for
the Northwest Passage?
Cabot
Wanted to claim the land for England
Voyages basis for future English colonies
along North America’s Atlantic shore
Verrazzano – French – explored Atlantic
coastline of North America but no passage
found
Cartier – traveled up St. Lawrence River to
today’s Montreal
What caused the conflicts between
the English, French and Spanish?
Spain claimed the land under Treaty
of Tordesillas
Religious conflicts in Europe like
Reformation
Spain and French
Florida became battle grounds
Huguenots – colony called Fort Caroline
Spanish – build fort – St. Augustine –
then brutally massacred the French
Spain and England
Religious differences
Quest for national power
English sea dogs attacked Spain’s
galleons that brought gold and
silver from the Americas
Sir Frances Drake
Raided Spanish ports and ships in
South America
Became the first Englishmen to
sail around the world
What led to the destruction of the
Spanish Armada? - 130 ships
Met in English channel
English ships darted among Spanish warships
firing deadly cannon rounds
Spanish crippled and retreated but was hit by a
severe storm – barely made it home
Spain still strong – rebuilt navy and maintained
its large colonial possessions but never as
powerful as they were before
English victory – two important effects
England remained independent and Protestant
Spain’s image suffered – it showed they could be
beaten.
What was the goal of the colonies of
Quebec and New Amsterdam?
Quebec
First permanent French settlement in
North America
Opened a rich fur trade with local Native
Americans
New Amsterdam
Located on current sight of New York
Thriving fur trade with Native Americans
SECTION 3
THE SPANISH AND NATIVE
AMERICANS
What steps did Spain take to govern
lands in the Americas?
Two provinces – New Spain and Peru
Called Viceroyalty – ruled by viceroy
Roads allowed soldiers to move quickly
from place to place
How did the Spanish manage the
economy of the American colonies?
Encomienda – a grant of Native
American labor
Worked on haciendas to grow cash
crops – coffee and cotton
Built new roads to transport people and
goods across empire
Roads allowed gold and silver to be
transported efficiently to the coast and
then to Spain
How was Spanish colonial society
organized?
Spanish born
Creoles – people of Spanish descent
born in colonies
Mestitoes – Spanish and Native
American mix
What role did the Catholic Church
play in the Spanish colonies?
Missions – included a church, town and
farmland
To convert Native Americans to Christianity
Increased Spanish control over land
Helped Native Americans to create a better
supply of food
Offered protection against enemies
Taught them how to read and write
Developed skills such as carpentry and
metalworking
Why did many Native Americans grow
increasingly unhappy with the
Catholic missions?
Missionaries worked them as if they
were slaves
Tried to replace religions and traditions
Forced to work on plantations
How did the plantation system affect
Native Americans?
Hispaniola – forced native Taino to work
on sugar plantations – many suffered
and died
Who was Bartolome’ de Casas?
Catholic priest – had trouble serving
God and enslaving Native Americans
Gave up his claim to Native
Americans
Fought against the abuse of Native
Americans – “Protector of the
Indians”
How did the Columbian Exchange
contribute to the spread of disease in
the Americas?
Transfer of germs from Europe –
smallpox, measles and influenza
What were some of the beneficial
effects of the Columbian Exchange?
Brought many plants and animals –
cattle, pigs, horses, grapes, onions and
wheat
American crops became part of
European diet – potatoes and corn
These crops fed populations that might
have gone hungry.
Critical Cause and Effect
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LESSON
The Columbian Exchange
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SECTION 4
BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY IN
THE AMERICAS
What forms has slavery taken through
history?
Some societies slaves were domestic
servants in wealthy households
Some labored in mines and fields
Often enslaved when captured in battle
or sold to pay debts
Some treated with respect
Allowed to marry and own property
Children allowed to go free
What are the four reasons for
enslaving Africans?
Immune to European diseases
Had no friends or family in North America
to help them resist or escape
A permanent source of cheap labor –
children could be held in bondage
They had worked on farms in their native
lands
Why did the slave trade increase
between 1500 and 1800?
Colonies then increased demand by
wanting slaves also and became
dependent on slaves
What groups participated in the slave
trade?
European slave traders
Rulers of West African kingdoms
Slaves were traded for European goods
– textiles, ironware, wine and guns
How did the slave trade affect African
societies?
Made coastal African kingdoms rich but
weakened inland African societies
How many Africans were enslaved
and shipped to the Americas?
12 million shipped before it was ended
2 million died during voyage
Why was their voyage called the
Middle Passage?
Middle Passage was voyage from Africa
to Americas
Middle leg of the triangular trade
Between Europe, Africa and Americas
What conditions prevailed on slave
ships?
Crammed into spaces so small – not
enough room to stand
Foul smells, disease and shrieks and
groans of dying made it a terrifying
experience
What happened to enslaved Africans
once they arrived in the colonies?
Sold at an auction
Forced to do hard labor
Fed and housed poorly
Slaves resisted by trying to run away or
rebelled
How did slavery influence racial
attitudes among Europeans?
Slavery associated with black Africans
Dark skin became assign of inferiority
Led to racism
Lasted 400 years
What part did the slave trade play in the
Columbian Exchange and how did Africans
influence culture in the Americas?
Vast knowledge about farming and animals
Sweet potatoes, peanuts and chilies
Strong artistic heritage of dance, music and
storytelling
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