Age of Exploration and Discovery

World History
Mr. Fisher
 Definition:
 A period of European history where Europeans ended their period of isolation and looked outward for economic,
cultural, and political reasons
 Motives:
 Cut out the middle man – decreasing the price of goods (Egyptians, Syrians, Turkish)
 Nationalism – “I’m the first to…” or “We are the first to…”
 The “Unknown”
 Portuguese Pioneers: (Why Portugal?)
 Leaders of exploration
 Henry the Navigator: (mostly West Africa)
 Patron of the explorers to help build maps
 Bartolomeu Dias
 Proved that the west coast of Africa could be navigated
 Vasco de Gama:
 Led excursion to India and created trading treaties with Indians
 Ferdinand Magellan – first individual to circumnavigate the globe
 Spanish Explorers:
 Spurred by the success of Portuguese explorers
 Christopher Columbus (Getting to the “East” by sailing west)
 Understood that the Earth is spherical
 Issues – size of the Earth and two continents in his way
 Landed probably in present day Bahamas
 AMERIGO Vespucci – helped name the “Americas”
 Vasco Nunez de Balboa – “hacked” a passage through Panama – quicker route to Asia
 English:
 John Cabot – try to find a more “Northern” route than Columbus
 Netherlands: (Same motives)
 Henry Hudson – Explored Hudson River to find a quicker route to Asia
 Spanish conquistadors (conquerors)
 Why did the conquistadors easily defeat the early American civilizations?
 Hernan Cortez: (Spanish)
 Defeat of Aztecs (South Mexico)
 Aztecs believed that Cortez was the coming of their God (Quetzalcoatl)
 Results:
 Spain controls Mexico and Central America
 Creation of Mexico City
 Francisco Pizarro: (Spanish)
 Take over of the Incan Empire (Central-west South America)
 Used the same techniques for victory
 Results:
 Spanish control most of South America
 Reasons for victory: (Journal Entry - Pg. 396)
 Superior technology
 Horses, guns, cannon
 Allied with Aztec and Incan enemies
 Disease (sacrifice more?)
 End of the world?
 “Let us die, then, for our gods are already gone”
 Thought Europeans were Gods
 Lasting impact:
 Language – Spanish
 Religion – Roman Catholic
 Introduction of horses, apples, and wheat
 Ruling the Spanish Empire
 How did the Spanish set about ruling and maintaining order in their empire?
 Political
 Set up colonial court systems with viceroys (representatives)
 Cultural (Why would you want to convert people to your culture?)
 Catholic Church
 Conversions helped “lessen” the takeover
 Introduction of Spanish language, carpentry, and locksmith
 Economical
 Export ONLY to Spain and import ONLY from Spain
 Gold, silver, sugar cane
 King issues encomiendas (allows the use of slave labor) to increase profits on plantations
 Bartolome de las Casas disapproves of slave labor  decline native slave labor
 Results in African slave trade
 Immune to disease, skills in farming, mining, and metalworking
 New social classes (Pg. 399 – create social hierarchy)
 Based on race
 Peninsulares – Spanish born people
 Held the most highest government and Church positions
 Creoles – American-born descendants of Spanish
 Plantations, ranch, and mine owners
 Mestizos:
 Native American and European descent
 Mulattoes:
 African and European descent
 Major Results of Empire-Building
 Commercial Revolution
 Increase trade/colonies in other parts of the Americas
How did the New France and New England society differ from New Spain?
 Other European countries expanding to compete with Spanish Empire
 The Disappointment of U.S. and Canada
 Lack of gold and passage to Asia
 New France – Canada: (All this land, what do we do with it?)
 Economy:
 Attracted by the fishing industries
 Harsh climates prohibited farming
 Resulted in the fur and trapping industries
 Political:
 King Louis XIV encouraged settling of New World (increase in tax revenue)
 The 13 English Colonies:
 Started mostly by “separatists”
 People leaving England to seek religious freedom
 First permanent colony in Jamestown, Virginia
 Economy:
 Aided by the Native Americans
 Production of crops and tobacco
 Plymouth Rock (Massachusetts) (Video Questions)
 Political:
 Pilgrims (Protestants) created the Mayflower Compact
 Colonists first attempt at self-government
 Creation of representative governments (differed from New Spain)
 Results
 Increase competition among European countries
 Ex. French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
 Caused by expanding country boundaries in Americas
 France succeeds land east of Mississippi (Treaty of Paris)
 Which country started the Age of Exploration?
 Where did they go?
 Portugal  Western Africa  India
 Other European countries followed Portugal
 Slave Labor:
 Most traded “good” in Africa
 Ivory and diamonds
 Used to fill void in American colonies
 Untapped resources needed labor
 Forced into “floating coffins”
 Triangular Trade
 Middle Passage:
 Part of triangle dealing with slaves going to Americas
 Results:
 European culture infused into African culture
 Language (European languages, Arabic)
 Religion (Islam and Christianity)
 Conflict between Afrikaners and Europeans
 Ex. Boer War
 Battle between the British and the Natives
 Extermination of African population
 Estimated 14 million taken for slave trade
 Revolting African people
 Ex. Amistad
 What major changes occurred as a result of European exploration?
 Columbian Exchange
 The increase in global markets (Europe, Africa, Asia, Americas)
 Exchange of goods and services from the New World to Europe and vice versa
 More food, more population
 Increase in migration
 Commercial Revolution
 Experienced inflation
 General rise in the price of goods
 Causes:
 Population
 More people, more demand, less supply
 Gold and silver
 More money, more demand, less supply
 Dev’l of Capitalism:
 Private ownership of the means of production
 Creation of goods and services to make a profit
 Entrepreneurs willing to take risks to make profit
 Mercantilism
 Government control of trade to ensure country’s prosperity
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