Vegetables Power Point

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Vegetables
Foods I: Fundamentals
8 Classifications of Vegetables
• 1. Tubers
– Potatoes
• 2. Roots
– Beets, turnips, carrots, radishes
• 3. Bulbs
– Onions, garlic, leeks, chives
• 4. Stems
– Celery, mushroom, asparagus
• 5. Seeds
– Beans, peas, corn
• 6. Flowers
– Artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli
• 7. Leaves
– Brussel sprouts, cabbage, lettuce, spinach
• 8. Fruits
– Cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash
Fun Fact
Which of the following contains the
most vitamin C?
A. An orange
B. A red pepper
C. A potato
Answer: B.
a red pepper contains more vitamin C than
both an orange and potato combined…
Color Says It ALL!
• Green
– Chlorophyll
• Dark leafy greens (spinach) contain a lot of the b vitamin folate as well as iron
• Cruciferous veggies (broccoli, cabbage) may protect against cancer
• Cook in small amount of water for short time
• Yellow/Orange
– Carotenoids
• Carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes are great source of beta carotene which is
converted to vitamin A which helps eyes
• Cook covered in small amount of water
Color Says It ALL!
• Red/Purple
– Anthocyanins
• Tomatoes contain LYCOPENE which may reduce the chance of cancer
(especially prostate)
• Red veggies (beets, radishes, cabbage) also contain a lot of vitamin C and
iron
• Antioxidants produced by anthocyanins protect from cell damage.
• Cook covered in small amount of water
• Add acid (VINEGAR) to keep foods red color (beets, red cabbage especially!)
• White
– Flavones
•
•
•
•
Potatoes, mushrooms, onions, cauliflower, garlic
Offer vitamin B & C as well as iron and calcium
Lower blood pressure, cholesterol and reduce risk of heart disease
Overcooking can cause color change
Nutrients in Vegetables
• Like fruits, vegetables are
made up of a mixture of water
and carbohydrates.
• Vegetables with a:
– High water content are crisp,
juicy and succulent.
• Ex. Flowers, Stems, Fruits,
Leaves
» Tomatoes, Celery,
Cucumbers, Broccoli,
Lettuce
– High carbohydrate content
are starchy.
• Ex. Roots, Tubers, Seeds,
Bulbs
» Potatoes, Lima Beans,
Corn, Squash
Nutrients in Vegetables
• Vitamins
– Chlorophyll - green substance of plant cells that gives their green
color.
– Vitamin A - eyes
• Leafy green and deep yellow vegetables contain carotene which
converts to Vitamin A
– Vitamin C • Most vegetables contain vitamin C - broccoli, peppers, tomatoes,
cabbage
– Vitamin B
• Lima beans and peas
• Minerals
– Calcium
– Iron
• Carbohydrates
– Cellulose, starch and sugar
• Proteins
– Incomplete protein - dried beans and peas
• ANTIOXIDANTS
– Linked with lowering the risk of cancer & heart disease
Choosing Vegetables
•
Canned
•
•
•
Frozen
•
•
label information is your
guide
Dried
•
•
more water, cooked at
processing time
liquid can be drained before
cooking to reduce sodium
levels
soak beans, peas, legumes
before cooking
Fresh
•
•
more nutritious,
look for crisp, firm, bright
color, absence of bruises
Selecting Fresh Vegetables
Preparing Vegetables
• Always wash in COLD water before consuming to remove pesticides
& dirt
– Tough-skinned veggies that are dirty can be washed with a stiff brush.
• Leafy greens should be washed before storage.
– To do this, pull the leaves away from the core and run under cold water.
• Cut vegetables to the same size so that they can cook equally
throughout
– Cut potatoes can be kept in ice water to prevent browning.
• Skins contain fiber and added nutrients but may be pared or peeled
away to remove wax coating
WHOA! Note Overload
• Take a 5 minute break…
Journal
• Review: Classification Mix-Up
• Match the following veggies to their classification
1. Eggplant
2. Garlic
3. Brussel sprouts
4. Corn
5. Squash
A. Bulb
B. Seed
C. Tuber
D. Leaves
E. Fruit
Reflection: “Eat Your Vegetables!”
• For decades, vegetables have been portrayed as
the gross food that you have to get through in order
to get dessert. Some are not even aware that
vegetables can be prepared in a way that makes
them appetizing. Truth is that they can be both tasty
and extremely beneficial to our health. What is your
take on vegetables? Do you enjoy them or have you
had bad experiences with them in the past?
Fun Facts
True or False
If salad ingredients are
not washed and dried
properly they may dilute
the dressing.
TRUE!
Because nobody likes a
watery salad…
Cooking Vegetables
•
Important Tips:
–
–
Goal to retain color, flavor, nutrient,
texture
Cooked veggies should be flavorful,
brightly colored and crisp-tender
•
Overcooking can:
–
–
–
–
–
destroy vitamins
dull colors
mushy texture
» Cellulose structure softens, and
they become less crisp
» Starch absorbs water, swells, and
become more soluble
unpleasant smell and/or taste
Water-soluble vitamins (B&C) from
vegetables seep out into the cooking
liquid
–
This liquid can be frozen and used for
soups
Cooking Vegetables
•
DRY Cooking Methods
–
Baked
•
•
wash thoroughly and place on oven rack
potatoes should be baked between 300-450F
»
–
Fry
•
pan or deep fried
–
–
When wrapped in foil, STEAM causes them to cook
usually battered before frying (except potatoes)
Microwave
•
•
•
retain color, flavor, texture, and most nutrients while using very
little water
require a “standing time” to allow them
to cool and finish cooking
tender parts of veggies should be
arranged toward the center of the
microwave to prevent overcooking
Cooking Vegetables
•
MOIST Cooking Methods
–
Boil
•
•
boil small amount of water, add
vegetables, return to boil, cover pan,
reduce heat to a simmer
Amount of water……
–
–
–
Loss of nutrients is reduced when
cooked in small amount of water
Pan is covered to prevents both
scorching and loss of water due to
evaporation
Steam
•
•
•
water in bottom of pan, basket to hold
food, cook over boiling water
Takes a little more time
Retains the MOST nutrients
Fun Facts
True or False…
Potatoes that are stored
in the refrigerator taste
different than ones
stored at room
temperature.
TRUE!!!
Potatoes that are stored
in the refrigerator taste
sweeter because their
starches have turned
to sugar.
Storing Vegetables
•
Refrigerate most
•
•
•
•
Roots & Tubers
•
•
store in cool, dry, dark place
Canned
•
•
examine first before putting
away
make sure they are dry to
prevent mold growth
cut veggies should be kept in
tightly-sealed plastic
containers
on shelf at room temperature,
use within a year
Frozen
•
use immediately when
thawed
The End…
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