Arch of Titus

So far we have studied:
 Portraiture
Patrician carrying busts
Philip the Arabian
Now this is:
Relief Sculpture
Arch of Titus
AD 81
But first...a list of Emperors
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus 27BC- AD14
Tiberius AD14 - 37
Caligula AD37 – 41
Claudius AD 41- 54
Nero AD54- 68
Year of 4 emperors
(AD 68 –AD69)
Flavian Dynasty
Vespasian AD69-79
Titus AD79-81
Domitian AD 81-96
Trajanic Dynasty
Nerva AD96-98
Trajan AD98-117
Hadrian AD117-138
Antonine Dynasty
Antoninus Pius AD138-161
Marcus Aurelius AD161- 180
Lucis Verus AD161-169
Commodus AD177-192
Severan dynasty
(11 emperors)
Emperors during the height
of crisis AD 235-268
 Philip the Arabian
Many others (constant
Reliefs from the Arch of Titus
workbook p.44
Location: On the Via Sacra (Sacred Way) in Rome
Architectural type: Arch
Inscription: Find notes on p.44/45 Paul Artus
Purpose: Constructed to commemorate Titus’ defeat
of the Jews and destruction of Jerusalem and its
temple in AD 70, as well as his deification
Dates of construction: Find in Paul Artus
Construction materials: Pentallic marble
Dimensions: 15m high & 12m wide
Arch of Titus workbook p.47
Who built this arch? Domitian (Titus’
brother and successor)
What were the dates of Titus’ reign?
Look up on the list of Emperors that
you have glued in the back of your
Reliefs from the Arch of Titus
workbook p.46
Glue in the two panels (given to you
on the handout)
Annotate them using the notes from
Paul Artus p.47/48 45/46
North panel
Arch of Titus workbook p.47
North panel
The content of this panel is Titus’
triumphant procession upon his
return to Rome after defeating the
Jews at Jerusalem. He sits at the
back of a quadriga (4 horse chariot)
as the triumphant general.
Arch of Titus workbook p.47
North panel
Comment on the style and features of this
There is a sense of movement shown as the
depth of the relief varies – it is very
deeply carved in the centre and low relief
on either side, as if the procession is
swinging around a corner. Titus is made to
be the dominant image by being placed
high above the other objects.
Here humans and gods (divinities) walk side
by side.
The South panel
Arch of Titus workbook p.47
South Panel
The content of this panel also the
procession of Titus’ success at
Jerusalem. Here his soldier’s carry
spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem
to show of their success as they
return to Rome through the
triumphal gate.
Arch of Titus workbook p.47
South panel
Comment on the style and features of this
There is a sense of movement conveyed by
soldiers overlapping to show the busy
procession. Their knees are bent to show
the weight of the spoils which emphasises
the victory. Heads bobbing up and down
irregularly giving liveliness and depth. This
is also high relief in the centre and low on
the sides to convey the idea of the
procession coming towards the viewer then
away. The dominant image is the menorah
above the heads of the soldiers.
Arch of Titus Workbook p.47
List two ways that this Arch reflects
Imperial Propaganda
See page 46/48 paul Artus
Arch of Titus workbook p.48
4. Composite/inscription/coffers/vault/ gilded/
chariot (quadriga)
6.Titus/higher/Victory/Genius of Roman
9. background/ blue/ gold/ overlapping /spoils
New terms
See page 79
Of your
Types of column capitals
Guess the column capital!
Types of columns
Label the columns
What type of columns are
these, Fluted or unfluted?
Are they free-standing or
joined to the wall?
What is a word we use for
people who are joined
together? (particularly
before being joined in
What type of columns
are these, Fluted or
Are they free-standing
or joined to the wall
What types of columns does the arch of Titus have?
Fluted/unfluted? engaged/freestanding?
What types of columns
Capitals does the arch of Titus have?
Workbook p. 49
Use Paul Artus p.46/44 to
annotate the diagram with
the detail of the arch
Exterior columns
Are unfluted
Interior columns
are fluted
Relief of Apotheosis
(Titus on an eagle)
Apotheosis of Titus
This scene is placed on the centre
of the Coffered vault, over the
main passage. Depicts Titus
being carried heavenward on
The back of a large eagle. This
Represents his apotheosis (becoming
A god). This also confirms that the
Arch was made after his death.
Glue on to p.44 of your workbook and write the notes
Add to page
to page 49 of your workbook
The architrave is supported by a
Projecting key stone, which has been
Carved into a scroll. The scroll is
decorated on One side of the
monument with the figure
Of Roma & on the other with
the figure of Fortuna.
“It is elegant in its simplicity. A single gateway stands crowned by
An entablature and attic storey.”
The triumph is
recorded on a pair
of relief panels that
decorate the
interior walls of the
Each is a
narrative which
represents a
section of the
events from the
triumphal parade
of AD71
Vocab list – put on p.47 in top right corner
 Pylons – 2 outside pillars of an arch
 Vault – circular central part of an arch
 Posthumous – after death
 Fasces – bundles of birch rods surrounding an
 Lictors – attendants of the emperor
 Genius - spirit/soul of a group of people
 Keystone (highlight in your glossary)
 Spandrels (highlight in your glossary)
 Apotheosis – becoming a god
The South panel
Glue into p.46
And annotate using
Paul Artus
North panel
The South panel
Glue into p.46
And annotate using
Paul Artus
The north panel – add to p.46
Emperor Titus depicted at rear of parade as Triumphator
(Triumphant general).
He is led through the city by personifications of the virtues
most admired by Romans.\
The south panel. …Add to p.46
The soldiers wear only tunics and laurel
wreaths because it was tradition that
before entering Rome, they had to leave
their weapons outside the city walls.
The most prominent feature of this relief
is the men holding the menorah, so much
attention to detail, that they use pillows
on their shoulders to help ease the
*Interesting facts – add to page 45 of
your workbook
Its current appearance is the result of much
restoration during the 19th century.
The arch had once been incorporated into a medieval
fortress as part of its defences and a chamber was
built into the vault of the arch – the large holes that
held its support beams are still in the reliefs of the
central passage
Inscription was once in bronze, the latin phrase
“Senatus Populusque Romanus” or ‘SPQR’ translates
to ‘the senate and people of Rome’, is a common
feature of Roman monuments.
Top of the arch once had a bronze statue of a
quadriga on it
Complete the
Exam questions in
Paul Artus