# [2]主、谓语的确定

```A Course of Translation
from Chinese into English
Chapter 3
Translation of Sentences
3.2 主语的确定

1. 我们能解决这个难题。
We can solve this problem. / We can come up with a
solution to this problem.
2. 两天时间能解决这个难题。
a. We / You / One / They can solve this problem in two
days.
b. This problem can be solved in two days.
c. Two days’ time will guarantee a solution to this
problem.
d. Two days will be long enough for solving this
problem.
3.2 主语的确定
3. 明年5月之前能解决这个难题。
a. Before / Prior to the next May, this problem can
be solved.
b. Before / Prior to the next May, a solution to this
problem will be found.
4. 那个地方能解决这个难题。
a. This problem can be solved at that place.
b. A solution can be found to this problem at that
place.
c. At that place this problem can be solved.
d. That place is where this problem can be solved.
5. 1000万元能解决这个难题。
a. This problem can solved with ten million yuan.
b. Ten million yuan will enable to solve this problem.
3.2 主语的确定
6. 调查研究能解决这个难题。
a. This problem can be solved through investigation.
b. Through investigation, this problem can be solved.
c. An investigation will result in solving the problem.
7. 快能解决这个难题。
a. This problem can be solved if it is handled quickly.
b. Immediately handled, this problem can be solved.
c. Quick / Immediate actions will render / bring about
a solution to this problem.
8. 巧干能解决这个难题。
a. To work ingeniously can bring about the solving of
the problem.
b. Working ingeniously will lead to the solving of the
problem.
3.2 主语的确定
9. 从王教授那里能解决这个难题。
a. We / You / One can solve this problem with the
help from prof. Wang.
b. This problem can be solved with the help from
prof. Wang.
c. With prof. Wang’s help, this problem can be
solved.
d. Prof. Wang’s help means the solving of the
problem.
10. 把技术人员的积极性调动起来能解决这个难题。
a. This problem can be solved by bringing into play
the positive factor of the technical staff.
b. Bring into play the positive factor of the technical
staff and this problem can be sovled.
3.2 主语的确定
11. 如果运用科学的方法能解决这个难题。
a. If a scientific method is adopted, this problem can
be solved.
b. By adopting a scientific method, this problem can
be solved.
c. The adoption of a scientific method can result in
solving this problem.
d. If we / you / one adopt(s) a scientific method, we /
you / he can solve this problem.
12. 人人都动手而不是空谈能解决这个难题。
a. If everyone does his bit instead of indulging
himself in empty talk, this problem can be solved.
b. A solution to this problem depends on everyone’s
involvement, not his empty talk.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.1 以原句主语作译文主语
13. 如果不适当地处理，锅炉及机动车辆排出的废气就

Exhaust from boilers and vehicles, unless properly
treated, causes air pollution in cities.
14. 然而悲惨的皱纹，却也从他的眉头和嘴角出现了。
Miserable wrinkles began to appear between his
eyebrows and round his mouth.
（《鲁迅全集》第二卷，杨宪益、戴乃迭译）
15. 如果说，词汇是语言的“建筑材料”，那么，句子

If vocabulary is the “building materials” for language,
sentences are the “fundamental parts” of writings.
（朱伯石《写作与语言》，李定坤译）
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.1 以原句主语作译文主语
16. 邮差先生走到街上来，手里拿着一大把信。在这小城

Mr. Postman would walk up the street with a bundle of
letters in his hand. Working in a small town as postman
and stamp seller, he still had lots of spare time. Every day
he would sit bending over his desk scissor-cutting flower
patterns, wearing a pair of glasses for farsighted old
people. （师陀《邮差先生》，张培基译）
17. 中国有两点是靠得住的，一是讲原则，二是说话算数。
（邓小平）
China can be counted on. Among other things, first, it
upholds principles and second, it honors its words.
18. 人有失错，马有漏蹄。
As a horse may tumble, so a man may make mistakes.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
19. 世纪之交， 中国外交空前活跃。
a. At the turn of the century, China is very active in its
diplomatic activities.
b. The turn of the century finds China most active on
the diplomatic arena.
More Examples in the type:
. 假日里，青年人双双对对漫步在公园里。
The young people in pairs and couples rambled
What if taking "holidays" as the subject?
.当夜幕降临时，他离目的地还有好几英里路。
Nightfall found him many miles short of his
destination.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
. 一九六四年十月中国爆炸了第一颗原子弹，使世界大

a. In October, 1964, China blasted its first atomic
bomb, which shocked the rest of the world greatly.
b. China’s first atomic blast in October, 1964 was a
great shock to the rest of the world.
20. 胎又瘪了。
a. (×) The tire turns flat again.
b. We have got another flat tire.
21. ① 鲁迅的骨头是最硬的， ② 他没有丝毫的奴颜和

a. (×) Lu Hsun’s bones were the hardest; he was free
from all sycophancy or obsequiousness; this is
invaluable among colonial and semi-colonial peoples.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
b. Lu Hsun was a man of unyielding integrity, free
from all sycophancy or obsequiousness; this quality is
invaluable among colonial and semi-colonial peoples.
22. 人不可貌相，海水不可斗量。
a. It is impossible to judge people from their
appearance, and impossible to measure the ocean by
pints. （刘鹗《老残游记》，杨宪益、戴乃迭译）
b. We can’t judge people from their appearance, just
as we can’t measure the ocean by pints.
23. 幸亏这些青年妇女，白洋淀长大的，她们摇得小船

It was lucky that all these young wives had grown up
by the river: their boat went like the wind. It shot forward
like some flying fish, hardly skimming the water.
（孙犁《荷花淀》，戴乃迭译）
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
24. 他的身材魁梧，生一副大长方脸，嘴巴阔大，肌肤

He was a giant of a man with a long square face, a
wide mouth and a complexion suffused with the colour of
red sandalwood.
（吴强《红日》， A. C. Barnes 译）
25. 树缝里也漏着一两点路灯光，没精打采的，是渴睡

Here and there a few rays from street-lamps filtered
through the trees, listless as the eyes of one who is
dozing.
（朱自清《荷塘月色》，王椒升译）
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
26. 在历史上，由于长江不断改道在武汉地区形成了众

The constant change of the course of the Changjiang
River in history helped form a great many lakes in the
areas around Wuhan.
27. 由于他离开此地，从2005年五月开始的长期谈判和

His departure brought to an end the long period of
negotiations and discussions begun in January 2005.
28. 华侨离乡背井，远居国外，所以他们在感情上越来

Absence and distance make the overseas Chinese
heart increasingly fond of the mainland.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
29. 熟悉情况的人士猜测说，产量明年有望超过一亿吨。
Informed guesswork suggests that it could rise to over
one hundred million tons next year.
30. 快乐的死亡却很快乐，不仅他自己感到快乐，别人看

Happy death is a joyful thing, bringing happiness to both
the writer himself and other people.
31. 有一次，几个中国人到一位美国人家里去作客。主人

3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
Once a group of Chinese was visiting the home of an
American. As they were shown around the house, they
commented, “You have a very nice home. It’s so
beautiful.” The hostess smiled with obvious pleasure
and replied in good American fashion “Thank you”,
which caused surprise among some of her Chinese
guests. Later, while conversing at the dinner table, the
host remarked to the Chinese interpreter, a young lady
university, “Your English is excellent. Really quite
excellent.” To this she demurred. “No, no. My English is
found a bit puzzling.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语
32. 夜来了却没有带来黑暗。上面是灰色的天空，下面

Night came, but did not bring darkness. The sky
remained gray, the ground was paved with snow. In the
large snow-covered courtyard, pots of gold plum
blossoms were ranged on either side of a raised stoneflagged path. Coated with frosty white, the branches
were like lovely jade. (The Family, trans. by Sidney
Shapiro)
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.3 增补主语

33. 到了济南府，进得城来，家家泉水，户户垂杨，比

When he reached Jinan and entered the city, there
were flowing streams by every house and willow trees by
every door, which delighted him even more than the
scenery of the south.
（刘鹗《老残游记》，杨宪益、戴乃迭译）
34. 沉默呵，沉默呵！不在沉默中爆发，就在沉默中灭

perish in this silence!
（鲁迅《纪念刘和珍君》，杨宪益、戴乃迭译）
35. 起大风了。 It’s blowing hard.
3.2 主语的确定——3.2.3 增补主语
36. 用劳动实现自己的理想，用理想指导自己的劳动。
You realize your ideals through labour and you guide
( 陈毅《赠郭沫若同志》 )
37. 不懂就是不懂，不要装懂。不要摆官架子。钻进去，

We must not pretend to know when we do not know.
We must not put on bureaucratic airs. If we dig into a
subject for several months, for a year or two, for three or
five years, we shall eventually master it.
( 毛泽东《论人民民主专政》，北京外文出版社 1961

3.2 主语的确定——3.2.3 增补主语
38. 出了院门，四顾一望，并无二色，远远的是青松翠

Once outside his own gate he gazed round. All was
white except for some green pines and emerald
bamboos in the distance, so that he had the sensation of
being in a crystal bowl. As he rounded the foot of the
slope he smelt a cold fragrance and, looking over his
shoulder, saw a dozen or so crimson plum trees in
Green Lattice Nunnery where Miao-yu lived, their
blossom, red as rouge, reflected in the snow and
remarkably vivid against it. (《红楼梦》，杨译)
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要

1. 中央政府不干预香港特别行政区的事务。
a. The Central Government has refrained from
intervening in the affairs of the HKSAR.
b. The Central Government has never intervened in
the affairs of the HKSAR.
2. 中国经济将融入世界经济的大潮。
a. The economy of China will merge into the tide of
the world economy.
b. The economy of China will converge with that of
the world.
3. 这事到了现在，还是时时记起。
a. Even now, this remains fresh in my memory.
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要

4. 世纪之交，中国外交空前活跃。
a. The turn of the century finds China most active on
the diplomatic arena.
b. At the turn of the century, China is very active in its
diplomatic activities.
5. （听说你明天开张，）也许用的着，特意给你送来了。
a. (I hear that you’re opening tomorrow.) You may
have some use for these things, so I took them along.
b. (I hear that you’re opening tomorrow.) Thought
these might come in handy, so I brought them along.
6. 现在，连我们也欠饷啊！
a. Nowadays even our monthly pay is often in
arrears.
b. Nowadays even we aren’t always paid on time.
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要
7. 在同新闻界谈话的时候，上海人使用越来越多的最高

a. When they talk to the press, the Shanghai citizens
use more and more adjectives of the superlative degree.
b. You can hear Shanghai people using more and
more adjectives of the superlative degree when they talk
to the press.
8. （现在上海人的传统形象开始起了变化，）他们的言

a. Their words and actions are filled with confidence
and pride.
b. They are confident and proud in their speeches and
actions.
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要

9. 我又闲了一个多月啦！
a. I’ve been idle for another month now.
b. Another month now and I've had no work.
10. （颐和园）1900 年遭八国联军破坏，（至 1903 年

a. The palace was reduced to ruins by the allied
forces of the eight foreign powers.
b. The palace suffered ravage in the hands of the
allied forces of the eight foreign powers.
11. 她们（指“时装模特”）逐渐地镇定下来，有了自

a. They gradually calmed down, restored selfconfidence, and ….
b. Gradually, they calmed down and regained self-
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要
12. 封建社会代替奴隶社会，资本主义代替封建主义，

Feudal society replaced slave society, capitalism
supplanted feudalism, and, after a long time, socialism
will necessarily supersede capitalism.
（《邓小平选集》第三卷）
13. （一个世纪以来，中国人民在前进道路上经历了三

The first change was represented by the Revolution of
1911 … The second change was marked by the founding
of the People’s Republic of China … The third change
was featured by the reform, opening up … (江泽民所作

3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要
14. 一年年，燕子来了去了；一年年，阶前草绿了黄了。
Year after year the swallows come and go; Year after
year the grass before the terrace grows green, yellows.
（陈敬容《只要是广阔的世界》，庞秉钧等译）
15. 九斤老太早已做过八十大寿，仍然不平而且康健。

Old Mrs Ninepounder celebrated her eightieth birthday
some time ago and is as full of complaints, as hale and
hearty as ever. Sixpounder’s twin tufts of hair have
changed into a thick braid. （鲁迅《风波》，杨宪益、戴

16. 他给我的印象是，态度非常呆板僵硬，仿佛肚子里

He had given me the impression of absolute rigidity,
as though he had swallowed a poker.
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要
17. 河边枯柳树下的几株瘦削的一丈红，该是村女种的

The few sparse hollyhocks beneath the withered
willows by the stream must have been planted by the
country girls. （鲁迅《野草 • 好的故事》，杨宪益、戴乃

18. 农业搞好了，农民能自给，五亿人口就稳定了。
a. If agriculture is in good shape and the peasants
self-supporting, then the 500 million people will feel
secure.
b. If agriculture is in good shape and the peasants are
self-supporting, then the 500 million people will feel
secure.
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要
19. 思想…… / 是炉火，

Thoughts …
Are the fire in a stove,
The fire in a stove is the tree’s shadow on the wall.
And the sound in the winter night.
（冯文炳《十二月十九夜》，李定坤译）
20. 关于如何改进市民的居住条件问题市政府给予了充

a. Full attention has been paid by the municipal
government to the improvement of the housing
conditions of the urban inhabitants.
b. The municipal government has paid full attention to
the housing conditions of the urban inhabitants.
3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要
21. 液体的形状总是随着容器的变化而变化，因为液体

Since a liquid has no definite shape of its own, it
varies in shape from container to container. In other
words, in whatever container it is poured, the liquid will
take exactly the interior shape of the container.
```
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