A Course of Translation from Chinese into English Chapter 3 Translation of Sentences 3.2 主语的确定 陈军洲在《汉译英中的话题-主语处理问题》（三峡大学 学报2009.5）一文中设计了12个例句来讨论主语的确定问题， 它们的谓语动词都是“能解决”，宾语都是“这个难题”： 1. 我们能解决这个难题。 We can solve this problem. / We can come up with a solution to this problem. 2. 两天时间能解决这个难题。 a. We / You / One / They can solve this problem in two days. b. This problem can be solved in two days. c. Two days’ time will guarantee a solution to this problem. d. Two days will be long enough for solving this problem. 3.2 主语的确定 3. 明年5月之前能解决这个难题。 a. Before / Prior to the next May, this problem can be solved. b. Before / Prior to the next May, a solution to this problem will be found. 4. 那个地方能解决这个难题。 a. This problem can be solved at that place. b. A solution can be found to this problem at that place. c. At that place this problem can be solved. d. That place is where this problem can be solved. 5. 1000万元能解决这个难题。 a. This problem can solved with ten million yuan. b. Ten million yuan will enable to solve this problem. 3.2 主语的确定 6. 调查研究能解决这个难题。 a. This problem can be solved through investigation. b. Through investigation, this problem can be solved. c. An investigation will result in solving the problem. 7. 快能解决这个难题。 a. This problem can be solved if it is handled quickly. b. Immediately handled, this problem can be solved. c. Quick / Immediate actions will render / bring about a solution to this problem. 8. 巧干能解决这个难题。 a. To work ingeniously can bring about the solving of the problem. b. Working ingeniously will lead to the solving of the problem. 3.2 主语的确定 9. 从王教授那里能解决这个难题。 a. We / You / One can solve this problem with the help from prof. Wang. b. This problem can be solved with the help from prof. Wang. c. With prof. Wang’s help, this problem can be solved. d. Prof. Wang’s help means the solving of the problem. 10. 把技术人员的积极性调动起来能解决这个难题。 a. This problem can be solved by bringing into play the positive factor of the technical staff. b. Bring into play the positive factor of the technical staff and this problem can be sovled. 3.2 主语的确定 11. 如果运用科学的方法能解决这个难题。 a. If a scientific method is adopted, this problem can be solved. b. By adopting a scientific method, this problem can be solved. c. The adoption of a scientific method can result in solving this problem. d. If we / you / one adopt(s) a scientific method, we / you / he can solve this problem. 12. 人人都动手而不是空谈能解决这个难题。 a. If everyone does his bit instead of indulging himself in empty talk, this problem can be solved. b. A solution to this problem depends on everyone’s involvement, not his empty talk. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.1 以原句主语作译文主语 13. 如果不适当地处理，锅炉及机动车辆排出的废气就 会造成城市空气污染。 Exhaust from boilers and vehicles, unless properly treated, causes air pollution in cities. 14. 然而悲惨的皱纹，却也从他的眉头和嘴角出现了。 Miserable wrinkles began to appear between his eyebrows and round his mouth. （《鲁迅全集》第二卷，杨宪益、戴乃迭译） 15. 如果说，词汇是语言的“建筑材料”，那么，句子 便是文章的“基本部件”。 If vocabulary is the “building materials” for language, sentences are the “fundamental parts” of writings. （朱伯石《写作与语言》，李定坤译） 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.1 以原句主语作译文主语 16. 邮差先生走到街上来，手里拿着一大把信。在这小城 里他兼任邮务员，售票员，但仍旧有许多剩余时间，每天戴 上老花镜，埋头在公案上剪裁花样。 Mr. Postman would walk up the street with a bundle of letters in his hand. Working in a small town as postman and stamp seller, he still had lots of spare time. Every day he would sit bending over his desk scissor-cutting flower patterns, wearing a pair of glasses for farsighted old people. （师陀《邮差先生》，张培基译） 17. 中国有两点是靠得住的，一是讲原则，二是说话算数。 （邓小平） China can be counted on. Among other things, first, it upholds principles and second, it honors its words. 18. 人有失错，马有漏蹄。 As a horse may tumble, so a man may make mistakes. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 19. 世纪之交， 中国外交空前活跃。 a. At the turn of the century, China is very active in its diplomatic activities. b. The turn of the century finds China most active on the diplomatic arena. More Examples in the type: . 假日里，青年人双双对对漫步在公园里。 The young people in pairs and couples rambled about the park on holidays. What if taking "holidays" as the subject? .当夜幕降临时，他离目的地还有好几英里路。 Nightfall found him many miles short of his destination. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 . 一九六四年十月中国爆炸了第一颗原子弹，使世界大 为震惊。 a. In October, 1964, China blasted its first atomic bomb, which shocked the rest of the world greatly. b. China’s first atomic blast in October, 1964 was a great shock to the rest of the world. 20. 胎又瘪了。 a. (×) The tire turns flat again. b. We have got another flat tire. 21. ① 鲁迅的骨头是最硬的， ② 他没有丝毫的奴颜和 媚骨， ③ 这是殖民地半殖民地人民最可宝贵的性格。 a. (×) Lu Hsun’s bones were the hardest; he was free from all sycophancy or obsequiousness; this is invaluable among colonial and semi-colonial peoples. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 b. Lu Hsun was a man of unyielding integrity, free from all sycophancy or obsequiousness; this quality is invaluable among colonial and semi-colonial peoples. 22. 人不可貌相，海水不可斗量。 a. It is impossible to judge people from their appearance, and impossible to measure the ocean by pints. （刘鹗《老残游记》，杨宪益、戴乃迭译） b. We can’t judge people from their appearance, just as we can’t measure the ocean by pints. 23. 幸亏这些青年妇女，白洋淀长大的，她们摇得小船 飞快。小船活像开了水皮的一条打跳的梭鱼。 It was lucky that all these young wives had grown up by the river: their boat went like the wind. It shot forward like some flying fish, hardly skimming the water. （孙犁《荷花淀》，戴乃迭译） 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 24. 他的身材魁梧，生一副大长方脸，嘴巴阔大，肌肤 呈着紫檀色。 He was a giant of a man with a long square face, a wide mouth and a complexion suffused with the colour of red sandalwood. （吴强《红日》， A. C. Barnes 译） 25. 树缝里也漏着一两点路灯光，没精打采的，是渴睡 人的眼。 Here and there a few rays from street-lamps filtered through the trees, listless as the eyes of one who is dozing. （朱自清《荷塘月色》，王椒升译） 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 26. 在历史上，由于长江不断改道在武汉地区形成了众 多的湖泊。 (无主语) The constant change of the course of the Changjiang River in history helped form a great many lakes in the areas around Wuhan. 27. 由于他离开此地，从2005年五月开始的长期谈判和 讨论乃告结束。 His departure brought to an end the long period of negotiations and discussions begun in January 2005. 28. 华侨离乡背井，远居国外，所以他们在感情上越来 越向往大陆。 Absence and distance make the overseas Chinese heart increasingly fond of the mainland. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 29. 熟悉情况的人士猜测说，产量明年有望超过一亿吨。 Informed guesswork suggests that it could rise to over one hundred million tons next year. 30. 快乐的死亡却很快乐，不仅他自己感到快乐，别人看 来也很快乐。 Happy death is a joyful thing, bringing happiness to both the writer himself and other people. 31. 有一次，几个中国人到一位美国人家里去作客。主人 引他们参观自己的住所。中国客人说:“你们的房子多好啊。 真漂亮。”主人听了十分高兴，按美国习惯笑着回答:“谢 谢。”有些中国客人对她的回答感到意外。后来，在餐桌上 谈话时，主人对大学毕业不久的中国女翻译说:“你的英语很 好，很流利。”女翻译谦虚地说:“不!不!我的英语说得很不 好。”主人没想到她会这样回答，感到有些迷惑不解。(邓 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 Once a group of Chinese was visiting the home of an American. As they were shown around the house, they commented, “You have a very nice home. It’s so beautiful.” The hostess smiled with obvious pleasure and replied in good American fashion “Thank you”, which caused surprise among some of her Chinese guests. Later, while conversing at the dinner table, the host remarked to the Chinese interpreter, a young lady who had graduated not long ago from a Chinese university, “Your English is excellent. Really quite excellent.” To this she demurred. “No, no. My English is quite poor.” — an answer that he had not expected and found a bit puzzling. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.2 重新确定主语 32. 夜来了却没有带来黑暗。上面是灰色的天空，下面 是堆着雪的石板地。一个大天井里铺满了雪。中间是一段 垫高的方形石板的过道，过道两旁各放了几盆梅花，枝上 积了雪，变成白色，像玉树一样地美丽。(巴金:《家》) Night came, but did not bring darkness. The sky remained gray, the ground was paved with snow. In the large snow-covered courtyard, pots of gold plum blossoms were ranged on either side of a raised stoneflagged path. Coated with frosty white, the branches were like lovely jade. (The Family, trans. by Sidney Shapiro) 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.3 增补主语 增补主语的原则，一是要推敲语境，二是要考虑英语语 法习惯和行文的需要。 33. 到了济南府，进得城来，家家泉水，户户垂杨，比 那江南风景，觉得更为有趣。 When he reached Jinan and entered the city, there were flowing streams by every house and willow trees by every door, which delighted him even more than the scenery of the south. （刘鹗《老残游记》，杨宪益、戴乃迭译） 34. 沉默呵，沉默呵！不在沉默中爆发，就在沉默中灭 亡。 Silence, silence! Unless we burst out, we shall perish in this silence! （鲁迅《纪念刘和珍君》，杨宪益、戴乃迭译） 35. 起大风了。 It’s blowing hard. 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.3 增补主语 36. 用劳动实现自己的理想，用理想指导自己的劳动。 You realize your ideals through labour and you guide your labour by ideals. ( 陈毅《赠郭沫若同志》 ) 37. 不懂就是不懂，不要装懂。不要摆官架子。钻进去， 几个月，一年两年，三年五年，总可以学会的。 We must not pretend to know when we do not know. We must not put on bureaucratic airs. If we dig into a subject for several months, for a year or two, for three or five years, we shall eventually master it. ( 毛泽东《论人民民主专政》，北京外文出版社 1961 年版译文 ) 3.2 主语的确定——3.2.3 增补主语 38. 出了院门，四顾一望，并无二色，远远的是青松翠 竹， 自己 却似装在玻璃盆内一般。于是走至山坡之下， 顺着山脚刚转过去，已闻得一股寒香扑鼻，回头一看，却 是妙玉那边栊翠庵中有十数株红梅，如胭脂一般，映着雪 色，分外显得精神，好不有趣。 Once outside his own gate he gazed round. All was white except for some green pines and emerald bamboos in the distance, so that he had the sensation of being in a crystal bowl. As he rounded the foot of the slope he smelt a cold fragrance and, looking over his shoulder, saw a dozen or so crimson plum trees in Green Lattice Nunnery where Miao-yu lived, their blossom, red as rouge, reflected in the snow and remarkably vivid against it. (《红楼梦》，杨译) 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要 一、首先看能否准确传达原意，表意是否贴切。 1. 中央政府不干预香港特别行政区的事务。 a. The Central Government has refrained from intervening in the affairs of the HKSAR. b. The Central Government has never intervened in the affairs of the HKSAR. 2. 中国经济将融入世界经济的大潮。 a. The economy of China will merge into the tide of the world economy. b. The economy of China will converge with that of the world. 3. 这事到了现在，还是时时记起。 a. Even now, this remains fresh in my memory. b. Even now, I still often think about this. 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要 二、要关照其与主语的语义关联以及主谓词语的搭配。 4. 世纪之交，中国外交空前活跃。 a. The turn of the century finds China most active on the diplomatic arena. b. At the turn of the century, China is very active in its diplomatic activities. 5. （听说你明天开张，）也许用的着，特意给你送来了。 a. (I hear that you’re opening tomorrow.) You may have some use for these things, so I took them along. b. (I hear that you’re opening tomorrow.) Thought these might come in handy, so I brought them along. 6. 现在，连我们也欠饷啊！ a. Nowadays even our monthly pay is often in arrears. b. Nowadays even we aren’t always paid on time. 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要 7. 在同新闻界谈话的时候，上海人使用越来越多的最高 级形容词。 a. When they talk to the press, the Shanghai citizens use more and more adjectives of the superlative degree. b. You can hear Shanghai people using more and more adjectives of the superlative degree when they talk to the press. 8. （现在上海人的传统形象开始起了变化，）他们的言 语和行动都充满了信心和自豪。 a. Their words and actions are filled with confidence and pride. b. They are confident and proud in their speeches and actions. 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要 三、考虑动宾、系表搭配，以及该搭配的修辞效果。 9. 我又闲了一个多月啦！ a. I’ve been idle for another month now. b. Another month now and I've had no work. 10. （颐和园）1900 年遭八国联军破坏，（至 1903 年 才得以修复）。 a. The palace was reduced to ruins by the allied forces of the eight foreign powers. b. The palace suffered ravage in the hands of the allied forces of the eight foreign powers. 11. 她们（指“时装模特”）逐渐地镇定下来，有了自 信。 a. They gradually calmed down, restored selfconfidence, and …. b. Gradually, they calmed down and regained self- 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.1 基于表意的需要 12. 封建社会代替奴隶社会，资本主义代替封建主义， 社会主义经历一个过程发展后必然代替资本主义。 Feudal society replaced slave society, capitalism supplanted feudalism, and, after a long time, socialism will necessarily supersede capitalism. （《邓小平选集》第三卷） 13. （一个世纪以来，中国人民在前进道路上经历了三 次历史性的巨大变化……）第一次是辛亥革命，……第二 次是中华人民共和国的成立，……第三次是改革开放…… The first change was represented by the Revolution of 1911 … The second change was marked by the founding of the People’s Republic of China … The third change was featured by the reform, opening up … (江泽民所作 十五大报告) 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要 14. 一年年，燕子来了去了；一年年，阶前草绿了黄了。 Year after year the swallows come and go; Year after year the grass before the terrace grows green, yellows. （陈敬容《只要是广阔的世界》，庞秉钧等译） 15. 九斤老太早已做过八十大寿，仍然不平而且康健。 六斤的双丫角，已经成为一支大辫子了。 Old Mrs Ninepounder celebrated her eightieth birthday some time ago and is as full of complaints, as hale and hearty as ever. Sixpounder’s twin tufts of hair have changed into a thick braid. （鲁迅《风波》，杨宪益、戴 乃迭译） 16. 他给我的印象是，态度非常呆板僵硬，仿佛肚子里 吞下了一根拨火棒似的。 He had given me the impression of absolute rigidity, as though he had swallowed a poker. 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要 17. 河边枯柳树下的几株瘦削的一丈红，该是村女种的 吧。 The few sparse hollyhocks beneath the withered willows by the stream must have been planted by the country girls. （鲁迅《野草 • 好的故事》，杨宪益、戴乃 迭译） 18. 农业搞好了，农民能自给，五亿人口就稳定了。 a. If agriculture is in good shape and the peasants self-supporting, then the 500 million people will feel secure. b. If agriculture is in good shape and the peasants are self-supporting, then the 500 million people will feel secure. 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要 19. 思想…… / 是炉火， 炉火是墙上的树影，/ 是冬夜的声音。 Thoughts … Are the fire in a stove, The fire in a stove is the tree’s shadow on the wall. And the sound in the winter night. （冯文炳《十二月十九夜》，李定坤译） 20. 关于如何改进市民的居住条件问题市政府给予了充 分重视。 a. Full attention has been paid by the municipal government to the improvement of the housing conditions of the urban inhabitants. b. The municipal government has paid full attention to the housing conditions of the urban inhabitants. 3.3 谓语的确定——3.3.2 基于构句的需要 21. 液体的形状总是随着容器的变化而变化，因为液体 没有自己的固定形状。换言之，无论你把它放在什么样的 容器中，它的形状总是和容器内壁的形状完全一样。 Since a liquid has no definite shape of its own, it varies in shape from container to container. In other words, in whatever container it is poured, the liquid will take exactly the interior shape of the container.