End of WWI

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End of WWI
1. Germany’s “Final Blow”
A) Russia left the War in 1917
B) Germany felt this was their chance to
win
Battle of the Argonne Forest – Sept.-Oct., 1918
· The battle
was fought
in an
attempt to
push
Germany
further out
of France.
· After forty-seven days and heavy casualties, the Germans
retreated.
American gunners battle through the Argonne Forest.
2) 2nd Battle of Marne



A. 2 million American troops arrive
B. Slowly move towards Germany (counterattack)
C. November 9, 1918-Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped
down.

A. 2 million
American
troops arrive

B. Slowly move
towards
Germany
(counterattack)

C. November 9,
1918-Kaiser
Wilhelm II
stepped down.

A) A. 2 million American troops arrive

B. Slowly move towards Germany
(counterattack)

C. November 9, 1918-Kaiser Wilhelm II
stepped down.
3. Peace Process
2. David Lloyd-George Great
Britain
1. Woodrow Wilson
USA
The Big Four
3. Georges Clemenceau France
4. Vittorio Orlando Italy
4. Wilson’s Fourteen Points
= plan for achieving peace after WWI
A) 1-5=free trade, reduced national armies and
navies (no secret treaties)
B) 6-13=changing borders and new
nations=Self Determination (allowing people
to decide themselves about what gov’t they
have)
C) 14=“general association of nations” that
could solve conflicts
5. Treaty of Versailles ( ends WWI)
A) Germany must assume guilt and pay for war
damages (reparations)
B) No independence given to any colonies
C) Japan and Italy gain less land than they expected
D) Americans do not support the “League of
Nations”

“Treaty built on quicksand”
The War Guilt Clause
"The Allied and Associated Governments
affirm, and Germany accepts, the
responsibility of Germany and her Allies for
causing all the loss and damage to which the
Allied and Associate Governments and their
nationals have been subjected as a
consequence of a war imposed upon them
by the aggression of Germany and her
Allies."
Article 231
GERMANY ACCEPTED
RESPONSIBILITY FOR
STARTING THE WAR
Versailles Treaty
- Germany was forced
to:
· take full blame for the
war
· completely disarm
· pay huge reparations
to the Allies
· give up it’s colonies
to the Allies
* Germany was an
angry, humiliated
nation, setting the stage
for World War II.
Adios, dandelion! I
guess my work here is
done!
6. League of Nations
A) • International cooperative
organization
B) • Established to prevent future wars
C) • United States not a member
D) • Failure of League because it did not
have power to enforce its decisions

- The Allies agreed to form the League of Nations.
7. The mandate system .

A) During World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to
divide large portions of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle
East between themselves.
 B) After
the war, the “mandate system”
gave Great Britain and France control
over the lands that became Iraq,
Transjordan, and Palestine (British
control) and Syria and Lebanon (French
control).

 C)
The division of the Ottoman Empire
through the mandate system planted the
seeds for future conflicts in the Middle
East.
Legacy of the War
 Over
8.5 million soldiers die
 21 million wounded-countless
number of Civilian deaths
 338 billion dollars in war
 Loss of a generation
New Weapons
Allied Troop looking at enemy lines
New Weapons
German dead in
frontline trench on the
Somme, 1916
Russian soldier
dead on the wire
Barbed Wire
Flamethrowers
Phosphorus Grenade Exploding
Austrian Skoda 305mm
howitzer
Krupp railroad gun
Entente Powers
Military
Deaths
Total Deaths
Military
Wounded
Australia[1]
Belgium[2]
Canada[3]
61,928
42,987
64,944
61,928
104,987
66,944
152,171
44,686
149,732
France[4]
India[6]
Italy[7]
1,397,800
74,187
651,010
1,697,800
74,187
1,240,010
4,266,000
69,214
953,886
Romania[13]
Russia[14]
Serbia[15]
United Kingdom[17]
250,000
1,811,000
275,000
885,138
680,000
3,311,000
725,000
994,138
120,000
4,950,000
133,148
1,663,435
117,465
205,690
10,353,813
12,809,280
United States[18]
116,708
Total
(Entente
5,696,056
Powers)
Central Powers
Military Deaths
Total Deaths
Military
Wounded
Austria-Hungary[19]
Bulgaria[20]
Germany[21]
1,100,000
87,500
2,036,897
1,567,000
187,500
2,462,897
3,620,000
152,390
4,247,143
Ottoman Empire[22]
Total
(Central Powers)
800,000
5,000,000
400,000
4,024,397
9,415,397
8,419,533
'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo, who was now behind him.
'I don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the pools when the
candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim
faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair and weeds in their silver hair. But
all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who
they are…'
"Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long ago....‘
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
Exit-Quiz
 1.
The Germans final blow came at the
2nd Battle of ___________.
 2.
What country made its first
appearance in this battle?
 3.
Which of the following leaders of the
“Big Four” is not correct? A)Wilson-U.S.
 B)Clemenceau-Great Britain, C)OrlandoItaly, D) All are correct
 4.
Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace
was referred to as the __________
_______.
The 14th point of this plan was to
form a general association of
_______that could solve conflicts.
 5.
 6.
The Treaty of _________ attempted to
resolve disputes after WWI.
 7.
The League of Nations was
established to prevent future
___________.
 8.
In the Treaty of Versailles, ________
had to accept guilt and blame for WWI.
 9.
The U.S. _______ (did or did not)
support the League of Nations.
 10.
The League of Nations failed because
it did not have any __________.
 11.
What “system” gave Great Britain
control of countries in the Middle East.
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