End of WWI 1. Germany’s “Final Blow” A) Russia left the War in 1917 B) Germany felt this was their chance to win Battle of the Argonne Forest – Sept.-Oct., 1918 · The battle was fought in an attempt to push Germany further out of France. · After forty-seven days and heavy casualties, the Germans retreated. American gunners battle through the Argonne Forest. 2) 2nd Battle of Marne A. 2 million American troops arrive B. Slowly move towards Germany (counterattack) C. November 9, 1918-Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down. A. 2 million American troops arrive B. Slowly move towards Germany (counterattack) C. November 9, 1918-Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down. A) A. 2 million American troops arrive B. Slowly move towards Germany (counterattack) C. November 9, 1918-Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down. 3. Peace Process 2. David Lloyd-George Great Britain 1. Woodrow Wilson USA The Big Four 3. Georges Clemenceau France 4. Vittorio Orlando Italy 4. Wilson’s Fourteen Points = plan for achieving peace after WWI A) 1-5=free trade, reduced national armies and navies (no secret treaties) B) 6-13=changing borders and new nations=Self Determination (allowing people to decide themselves about what gov’t they have) C) 14=“general association of nations” that could solve conflicts 5. Treaty of Versailles ( ends WWI) A) Germany must assume guilt and pay for war damages (reparations) B) No independence given to any colonies C) Japan and Italy gain less land than they expected D) Americans do not support the “League of Nations” “Treaty built on quicksand” The War Guilt Clause "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies." Article 231 GERMANY ACCEPTED RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING THE WAR Versailles Treaty - Germany was forced to: · take full blame for the war · completely disarm · pay huge reparations to the Allies · give up it’s colonies to the Allies * Germany was an angry, humiliated nation, setting the stage for World War II. Adios, dandelion! I guess my work here is done! 6. League of Nations A) • International cooperative organization B) • Established to prevent future wars C) • United States not a member D) • Failure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions - The Allies agreed to form the League of Nations. 7. The mandate system . A) During World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to divide large portions of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves. B) After the war, the “mandate system” gave Great Britain and France control over the lands that became Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British control) and Syria and Lebanon (French control). C) The division of the Ottoman Empire through the mandate system planted the seeds for future conflicts in the Middle East. Legacy of the War Over 8.5 million soldiers die 21 million wounded-countless number of Civilian deaths 338 billion dollars in war Loss of a generation New Weapons Allied Troop looking at enemy lines New Weapons German dead in frontline trench on the Somme, 1916 Russian soldier dead on the wire Barbed Wire Flamethrowers Phosphorus Grenade Exploding Austrian Skoda 305mm howitzer Krupp railroad gun Entente Powers Military Deaths Total Deaths Military Wounded Australia Belgium Canada 61,928 42,987 64,944 61,928 104,987 66,944 152,171 44,686 149,732 France India Italy 1,397,800 74,187 651,010 1,697,800 74,187 1,240,010 4,266,000 69,214 953,886 Romania Russia Serbia United Kingdom 250,000 1,811,000 275,000 885,138 680,000 3,311,000 725,000 994,138 120,000 4,950,000 133,148 1,663,435 117,465 205,690 10,353,813 12,809,280 United States 116,708 Total (Entente 5,696,056 Powers) Central Powers Military Deaths Total Deaths Military Wounded Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany 1,100,000 87,500 2,036,897 1,567,000 187,500 2,462,897 3,620,000 152,390 4,247,143 Ottoman Empire Total (Central Powers) 800,000 5,000,000 400,000 4,024,397 9,415,397 8,419,533 'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo, who was now behind him. 'I don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair and weeds in their silver hair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who they are…' "Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long ago....‘ - J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings Exit-Quiz 1. The Germans final blow came at the 2nd Battle of ___________. 2. What country made its first appearance in this battle? 3. Which of the following leaders of the “Big Four” is not correct? A)Wilson-U.S. B)Clemenceau-Great Britain, C)OrlandoItaly, D) All are correct 4. Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace was referred to as the __________ _______. The 14th point of this plan was to form a general association of _______that could solve conflicts. 5. 6. The Treaty of _________ attempted to resolve disputes after WWI. 7. The League of Nations was established to prevent future ___________. 8. In the Treaty of Versailles, ________ had to accept guilt and blame for WWI. 9. The U.S. _______ (did or did not) support the League of Nations. 10. The League of Nations failed because it did not have any __________. 11. What “system” gave Great Britain control of countries in the Middle East.