Jackson-the Nullification Crisis The Nullification Crisis • Nullify means: to cancel, to end. Example: The students fought to nullify fire drills in cold weather. • Nullification Crisis: --Conflict between John Calhoun and Andrew Jackson over a high tax on imports (foreign goods) passed in 1828 that increased since 1816 --also an conflict between states’ rights vs. national government --Tariff of 1828—known as Tariff of Abominations Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition & Protest (1828) • Written anonymously; was Jackson’s VP • Why did Calhoun call the tariff the Tariff of Abomination? • --as man of South Carolina, Calhoun thought the tariff was punishing the South. It punished the South who looked to get manufactured goods at a cheap price from foreign countries such as England. • Believed that states did not have to follow the Federal law that violated their states’ rights or way of life (Remember VA and KY Resolutions?) Webster-Hayne Debate: Calhoun’s proposal is debated in Congress Robert Hayne – So. Carolina Daniel Webster - Mass VS. Nullification makes the Union a “rope of sand!” NO TO NULLIFCATION-AGAINST THE CONSTITUTION Nullification allows individual states to protect their interests! YES TO NULLIFICATION-STATES’ RIGHTS Where does Jackson stand on this issue? Revealed at the annual Jefferson Day Dinner - Jackson: “Our Union: It must be preserved!” Calhoun: The Union, next to our liberty, most dear!” Civil War? US v So Carolina? • TEMPORARY FIX: Tariff of 1832-- Lowered rates to the level of the 1824 tariff • South Carolina STILL not satisfied → nullification of tariff approved by South Carolina convention! • President Jackson→ president must enforce laws! • JACKSON’ REACTION –He signs the Force Bill-stated either southern states follow the tariff or he would send troops Henry Clay to the rescue • Introduces a compromise tariff – lowers rates gradually over a period of 10 years Crisis over? • So Carolina accepted the compromise tariff, but nullified the Force Bill! Nothing has been solved! South Carolina STILL believes in the right to nullify an act of Congress!