President Andrew Jackson and “Jacksonian Democracy” The Election of 1824 In 1824 there was heated race for president. There were four men hoping to replace James Monroe as president. These four men were John Quincy Adams (the son of John Adams), William Crawford, Henry Clay “the great compromiser” and Andrew Jackson. John Quincy Adams Jackson won the popular vote but did not receive the electoral vote. According to the Constitution, if one person wins a majority of electoral votes, the House of Representatives must choose the president. The House of Representatives choose John Quincy Adams to be the 6th president. Hahaha in your face Jackson…. The House of Representative picked me!!!!! Jackson is Upset!! Jackson felt that Adams had stolen the presidency from him. He was so upset he was determined to run again in the next election and win as president in 1828. I hate you Adams!!! I am determined to be President! Democratic Republican Party Splits For the next four years, the gap in the Democratic-Republican Party grew wider and the party was about to split in two. Some in the party supported Jackson and others supported Adams. “Common Man” Andrew Jackson claimed that he represented the “common man.” He said that Adams represented people who were privileged and wealthy. The division eventually created two parties. The Democrats came from the supports of Jackson and the Republicans supported Adams. I’m voting Republican for John Quincy Adams Yeah.. me too Dear… I know I can’t vote but you should vote for Adams President for the “Common Man” During his campaign for president Andrew Jackson claimed that he represented the “common man”. He promised to look out for the interests of average people, not just the rich and welleducated. Jackson was determined to have the majority rule, regardless of one’s education or wealth. This idea of the majority rule has become known as “Jacksonian Democracy”. I’m voting for Andrew Jackson Yeah he supports us “common men” Burp… I’m voting for Andrew Jackson Whooo… Go Common Man… Ugh yes Sarah… I am going to go vote for Andrew Jackson Good, he says he supports people like us. Andrew Jackson Wins Election! Large numbers of Western farmers and workers in the nations cities turned out to vote for Andrew Jackson. With an overwhelming number of votes, Andrew Jackson won the 1828 race for president making him the 7th president of the United States. The People’s President So who was Andrew Jackson? Well, Andrew Jackson had a hard life growing up on a frontier farm. At the age of 13 he and his brother were taken prisoner by the British during the Revolutionary War. While being held captive, he apparently refused to shine the boots of a British officer. The officer then hit Jackson with a sword cutting both his hands and face and leaving ugly scars. Clean my shoes boy!!! Scars on Andrew Jackson’s face Revenge!! After his experience being held prisoner by the British when he was 13 he developed a strong hatred for anything British. At the age of 35, Andrew Jackson was given the chance to fight the British during the War of 1812. “Old Hickory” Jackson was appointed to be a general in the American Army. At the Battle of New Orleans in 1815, Jackson crushed the British army even though his troops were greatly outnumbered. He became a national war hero. He earned the nickname “Old Hickory,” after a solider said he was as “tough as a hickory tree.” “Old Hickory” Hero of the Battle of New Orleans Jackson Becomes President Shortly after Jackson won the election of 1828 his wife Rachel died of a heart attack. Andrew Jackson looked thin, pale and sad during his inauguration on March 4, 1829. Jackson’s Inauguration Thousands of people where there to celebrate Jackson becoming president. One person wrote, “all sorts of people, from the highest and most polished, down to the most vulgar and gross in the nation were there.” The crowd got so rowdy people broke glasses and grabbed for food and drink. The pushing and shoving of the crowd forced the new president to flee from the White House. Spoils System When Andrew Jackson became president he fired many of the government officials and replaced them with his friends and supporters. This practice of giving government jobs to his political backers became known as the “spoils system.” In my ways Andrew Jackson was spoiling his friends by giving them jobs in government. I spoil my friends by giving them jobs Native Americans in the Southeast Since the 1600s, white settlers pushed Native Americans westward as they took more and more land. However, by 1820 there were still about 100,000 Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River. Native Americans Some whites hoped that these Native Americans could adapt to the white people’s way of life. Others believed the Native Americans were “uncivilized and refused to live near them. Cherokee Nation More than any other Southeastern tribe, the Cherokee Indians had adopted white culture. The Cherokee had their own Constitution, they spoke English, they sent their kids to missionary school, and some even owned slaves!!! We have done so much to be respected and accepted by white culture. Jackson’s Removal Policy However, gold was discovered on Cherokee land in 1828. The discovery of gold made the Cherokee land very desirable and whites wanted it!!! In 1830 Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal act that required Native Americans to give up their land and relocate west. Andrew Jackson gave them one year to leave. Sorry lady You have to leave…We want your land and Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act The Trail of Tears In 1838, federal troops rounded up over 16,000 Cherokee men, women and children and forced them into camps. Soldiers then gave the people a hour to pack up everything from their homes and get ready to leave. Most people ended up with nothing more than the clothes on their backs. The Trail of Tears Over the fall and winter of 1838-1839, these Cherokees set out on the long journey west. Forced to march in the cold, rain and snow without proper clothing or food many grew weak and died. It is estimated that ¼ of the 16,000 Cherokee people who were forced to march west died (that’s 1 out of every 4). This harsh journey of the Cherokee from their homeland to Indian Territory in Oklahoma has become known as the Trail of Tears. Modern state of Oklahoma Rising Sectional Differences When Andrew Jackson took office the nation was divided into 3 main sections. The Northeast, South and West. Legislators from these regions were arguing over 3 major economic issues: the sale of land, national improvement such as canals and railroads, and tariffs (taxes). North Vs. South People in the north supported the idea of high tariffs (taxes on imported goods) because the tariffs meant that people would want to buy the cheaper American made goods rather than imported products with the higher taxes. The South however didn’t like the high tariffs. The South made their money by growing cotton and other crops and selling them to foreign countries for credit rather than money. The tariffs would make the foreign goods cost more. Sorry ladies if you want any of this stuff you are going to have to pay a tariff since all this was made in Europe. The tariff helps us in the North!!! Because of the tariff, the stuff we make here in the factory is always cheaper than the stuff made overseas. Therefore, people want to buy the stuff we make here in America. We in the South hate these tariffs!! We trade our cotton for stuff with Europe but because of the tariff we always have to pay more on the stuff we get from overseas. I want to be able to trade my cotton for stuff made in Europe without having to pay a tariff!! Tariff of Abomination In 1828 Congress passed a bill that greatly raised tariffs (taxes) on raw materials and manufactured goods. People in the South were outraged!!! Southerners felt that the economic interests of the Northeast were determining national policy and the South was being ignored by the national government. They hated the tariff and called it the Tariff of Abominations. This is an abomination!! (An abomination= a hated/horrible thing) What! We have to pay more on the products we trade with Europe! This is an abomination! Ahhh!!!! These tariffs only help the Northern factories!!!!! These tariffs are an abomination!! Nullification Crisis John C. Calhoun, Andrew Jackson’s vicepresident understood the frustration of the Southern farmers over the tariffs. Calhoun developed a plan called the Doctrine of Nullification. The Doctrine of Nullification said that a state had the right to nullify (reject) a federal law that it considers unconstitutional. South Carolina Threatens to Secede President Jackson was against the Doctrine of Nullification but didn’t want the South to remain upset. He asked Congress to lower the taxes and Congress agreed however South Carolina was still not happy. Congress please lower the tariffs!! South Carolina Threats to Secede South Carolina threatened that if the tariffs weren’t lowered even more they would secede (break away) from the United States and start their own country. Jackson was furious and said he would hang the first person he got his hands on!!!!!!!!! We still aren’t happy! Ugh…. This is so frustrating!!! Andrew Jackson and the Bank In 1832 when Andrew Jackson was elected for this 2nd term as president he vowed to destroy the Second Bank of the United States run by Nicholas Biddle. Jackson believed that the Second Bank was evil and only helped the rich, not the average man. Jackson vetoed (rejected) bill after bill that would renew the bank’s charter. (The charter would that allowed the bank to stay open.) I will destroy you Bank!! Jackson’s War on the Bank Jackson won on the bank the economy I’m the going war to destroy you evil bank!! With my power towas veto hurt. (reject) your charter! King Andrew Opponents (people who were against) Andrew Jackson called him a “King Andrew”. They said he wanted too much power as a president and was more like a tyrant. Martin Van Buren Becomes President When Andrew Jackson’s second term as president was over Martin Van Buren took over as the 8th president of the United States. During Martin Van Buren’s presidency the US was going through a deep depression. The Rise of Whig Party During the election of 1840, a new political party called the Whigs was created. They were given their name after a British party that opposed power of the king. The leader of the Whigs thought that the name would fit since he disliked Andrew Jackson and often called him “ King Andrew”.