Colonial Regions Part 2

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I.
Distinct Cultural Regions Develop
A. There Were Four
Distinct Regions that
Developed in the
English Colonies of
America.
a) The New England
Colonies
b) The Middle Colonies
c) The Southern
Colonies
d) The Backcountry
II. Factors that influence the
development of Geographic
Regional Distinctions
A. Climate – climate affects things like what people wear,
what they eat, and the homes they live in.
B. Social Norms – Humanly created rules of behavior,
edict, rituals and taboos
C. Religious Beliefs – Common religious beliefs or
practices that shape the lives of the people.
D. Values – Things that people hold in high regard or
consider to be of great worth.
E. Physical Geography –natural resources specific to a
region that occur naturally that influence economic
capabilities
Regions of the
13 Colonies:
Regional Differences
between the Colonies
New England Colonies
A. The New England
Colonies included
a) Massachusetts
Maine was a
part of
b) Rhode Island
c) New
Hampshire
d) Connecticut
B. New England Colonies were
characterized by
A. Climate – Long cold winters, rocky soil, population of
mostly English settlers
B. Social Norms – Heavily influenced by the Puritans and
included things like mandatory church attendance, no
dancing, and no playing of games
C. Religious Beliefs – Centered around Puritanism which
aimed to “purify” the practices of the Church of England
D. Values – “The New England Way” which emphasized
godliness, duty, hard work, and honesty
VI. Natural Resources of the New
England colonies
A. Natural Resources
a. Natural Harbors good
for shipping and trade
b. Abundant Forests with
lots of Timber
c. Atlantic Ocean offered
good water for fishing
and whaling
d. Good land for grazing
cattle
VI. New England Colonies Natural
Resources & Economic Development
B. Economic Development
whaling – provide oil from rendered lard
Small Farms – families provided for themselves
through subsistence farming
Fishing – New England’s coast offers some of the
worlds best fishing - Mackerel, Halibut, Cod, and
clams
Ship Building – Timber from pine trees and oak
tree are ideal for building ships
Trade – With good ports Triangular trade routs
are developed between New England, Africa, and
the West Indies (islands in the Caribbean)
V. New England Colonies
A. Subsistence Farming –
growing enough food for
your family and maybe
a little extra used for
trade.
a) Long winters and
short summers
equaled a short
growing season
b) The soil was shallow
and rocky which
made farming difficult
and less productive
C. Triangular Trade – a trading route with three
stops.
a) 1 typical scenario of Triangular Trade •
•
•
•
A ship would leave New England with rum and iron
The ship would go to Africa drop off the rum and iron
and pick up slaves
The ship would sail to the West Indies/ Caribbean and t
here trade the slaves for sugar and molasses.
The ship would take the sugar and molasses back to
New England where they would use the molasses to
make rum and the whole process would start again.
Middle Passage
Triangular Trade
D. Middle Passage –
This was the part of a
Triangular Trade
route where slaves
were transported on
ships from Africa to
the Americas.
a) Hundred of Africans
died on this journey
Middle Colonies
I. The Colonies :
A.
B.
C.
D.
New York
Pennsylvania
Delaware
and New Jersey
MIDDLE COLONIES
II. Climate
•
•
•
•
Longer Growing
Season than New
England
Rich fertile soil
allowed the growth
of Cash Crops of
grain
Cold Winters
Hot Humid
Summers
MIDDLE COLONIES
C. Social Norms – Quaker Influence
helped create an atmosphere of
tolerance
D. Religious Beliefs – Quakerism allowed other religious groups
follow their own beliefs and
practices
E. Values - Believed in the equality
of men and women, first group to
stand up against slavery
MIDDLE COLONIES
IV. Natural Resources
Excellent Harbors –With good ports for Trade
Fast Flowing Rivers – trading and powering mills
Mills were used to make flower from grains.
Colonists
ate 3 pounds of grain a day.
Rich soil – excellent soil for farming
Good fisheries
Animals – Animals like beavers were trapped and killed for their
pelts and furs (specifically beaver)
Timber – for housing, ships, masts
MIDDLE COLONIES Economy
Breadbasket Colonies
III. Cash Crops – Crops that are grown and
intended to be sold for a profit.
A. Types of cash crops included: fruits,
vegetables , and above all grains
B. Types of grains included:
corn, wheat, and rye
C. Immigrants
Landless Europeans came to this
Region to take advantage of its
productive land
SOUTHERN COLONIES
A. The Southern
Colonies Included:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
SOUTHERN COLONIES
II. Climate & Colonies
A. Very hot and humid in
the summers
B. Warm Winters
C. Enables Framers to
grow crops year-round
SOUTHERN COLONIES
B. Social Norms – Societal rank
based on the ownership of land
and acceptance of slavery
C. Religious Beliefs – varied from
colony to colony, but Maryland is
predominantly Catholic.
D. Values - Politically conservative,
strong allegiance to church, local
government and white
supremacy.
SOUTHERN COLONIES ECONOMY
A. Plantations
–Large plantation were vital to the
economy of the southern colonies
–Plantation crops included: Cotton,
Tobacco, Rice and Indigo, coffee,
and sugar cane
–Plantation crops required many
laborers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rake fields
Break ground before planting
Plant
Flood crops (rice)
Drain crops
Hoe and weed crops
Harvest crops
– Plantation owners look for a
cheep source of labor
SOUTHERN COLONIES
Growth of Slavery- Plantation
owners turn to the following for cheap
labor
– Indentured Servants- poor Englishmen who
agreed to become a servant/slave for five to seven
year in exchange for passage to America
» ( fulfilled time of service)
– Native American were enslaved
• They knew the land and could escape
• They were not immune to European diseases and
would die
– Planters turn to enslave Africans
SOUTHERN COLONIES
B. Planter Class – Plantation
owners
i.
–
–
–
Elite families with the money or
credit to buy land and slaves.
More slaves = more production of
rice, tobacco, indigo, cotton, or
sugar cane which equaled more
money
Slave labor allowed the planter
class to become very wealthy
This class took over the
government in the southern
colonies
SOUTHERN COLONIES
Plantations
Plantations were mostly
self-sufficient
Slaves were:
Carpenters
Barrel makers.
Blacksmiths
Tanners
Curriers
Shoemakers
Spinners
Weavers
Knitters
Distillers
SOUTHERN COLONIES
Slaves worked 15
hours a day
They were Whipped,
raped and beaten
They lived in small one
room cabins
They were poorly
clothed
Working
slowly
They were under fed
They made up 40% of
the south’s population
Damaging
equipments
They rebelled by:
Acting stupid
Backcountry
- Climate varied depending on latitude
- Mainly settled by the Scots-Irish
immigrants
• Northern & Middle
• Southern Colonies –
Colonies – Shorter
Warm climate, good
growing season, cold
soil for farming,
winters, fertile soil
English Settlers and
good for farming,
enslaved Africans
population with a
mixture of immigrants
from all over Europe
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