0.0_CH 3 BUILDING A NATION

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BUILDING A NATION
1840-1867
THE FATHERS OF CONFEDERATION
AFTER THE REBELLIONS
• English surpassed French
• Canada west outgrew Canada East.
– Toronto merged as a dominate city.
• The British became less interested in its colonies.
– Canada became responsible for $ and development.
• The idea of a united Canada appeared.
– Inter-colonial railway.
– American threats
• American Civil War
REBELLION LOSSES BILL
- $ to compensate property damages.
-First test of responsible government –> Law passed even though Elgin
& wealthy disagreed. (burned parliament bldg./threw fruit)
-Annexation Manifesto – Join the U.S.A
IMMIGRATION
• For The Wealthy – life was good.
– education, few taxes, fancy houses, servants.
• For The Poor – struggled to make a
living.
– 1-2 room cottages, poverty, poor wages, long
hours, no EI, no health care,no gov’t
assistance.
Social status was important
NOTE – The majority
of immigrants came
from Scotland &
Ireland.
VICTORIAN ATTITUDES
AND VALUES
•
QUEEN VICTORIA
Reign 1837-1901
Dressed In Black - Mourning
NEW AGE OF SCIENCE AND
MEDICINE
MEDICAL
DISCOVERIES
Aspirin
Antibiotics
Antiseptics
X-rays
Vitamins
Hormones
Germs
Microscope
Vaccinations
Smallpox
DISEASES
Cholera
Smallpox
Typhoid
Fever
Influenza
Tuberculosis
Killed
Millions
LEISURE AND TRAVEL
•
Ceilidhs
Scottish Parties
Barn Raisings
Bear Baiting
BULL FIGHTING?????
Traveling Sideshows
Medicine Shows
LEISURE AND TRAVEL
•
Railways
Sarah Bernhardt
Steam Travel
Bare
Knuckle
Boxing
Newspapers
BUILDING A
NATION
Some politicians had been dreaming of
Confederation – the union of the colonies
of BNA into a federation.
“….the scheme as a whole has met with almost
universal approval.”
J.A. MacDonald, 1864
THE REALITY – Almost as many people
opposed union as favoured it.
KEY TERMS
Coalition
Whip
Corruption
Representation by Population
‘Party Politics vs.
Private Members’
THE HOUSE OF COMMONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
SPEAKER
PAGES
GOV’T MEMBERS
OPPOSITION
PM
OPPOSITION LEADER
2ND OPPOSITION LEADER
CLERK
9. MACE
ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL
Can make laws without parliament
10. HANSARD
(Emergencies / Senate apt.)
11. SGT AT ARMS
MACE
12. THE BAR
SYMBOL OF POWER
13. INTERPRETERS
CABINET
14. PRESS GALLERY
(PM & his ‘best friends’
15. PUBLIC GALLERY
16. TV CAMERAS
PARTY POLITICS
CANADA EAST
Parti Rouge – Papineau
Pro- French, farmer,
business, US style,
No Act of Union.
Parti Bleu – Cartier
Pro – Economy,
Fr. Rights,
not as radical
as Papineau
CANADA WEST
Clear Grits – Brown
Anti- Corruption, Rep. by Pop.
more democracy,
‘GRUFF’
Pro English/Anti French
Tories – Macdonald
Middle Ground / Compromise
Less Democratic but willing to
work with French
Double Majority – Both Fr
Eng. Have to agree.
TOWARDS CONFEDERATION
FOUR CONCERNS FOR RESPONSIBLE GOV’T
1. New idea => How would it work?
2. Fear it would weaken the British Empire.
3. Economic Suicide=> Mercantilism was working.
4. Strengthen British political enemies.
FOUR WAYS CONFEDERATION WOULD HELP THE
ECONOMY.
1. Larger markets to sell to.
2. Increase industry.
3. Increase transportation.
4. Gov’t would serve Canada first & not Britain.
Responsible Government
For Elgin
BUILDING A NATION
PROS
CONS
• Central gov’t control
-French/Aboriginal = loss of culture.
defence, currency, postage, taxation, foreign
affairs, etc. (Independence gone???)
• Economic stability.
– Britain already repealed Corn Laws
(exclusive trade privileges).”THE FAMILY DEAL”
– US to end Reciprocity Treaty / Free
Trade.
– Steam, hurt ship building industry.
• Intercontinental RR.
• USA threats / Manifest Destiny
– American Civil War
– Fenian Raids
•
(Brt helped South)
Stable responsible government.
- Too many independents = crisis
– Break “deadlock”/ Coalition gov’t.
-- language, Catholic church, assimilation.
-Many preferred Brt. control.
-safety and $$$.
-Weaken Brt. Empire???
-Maritimes felt no benefits.
-RR to PEI????
-Colonial & US trade
already established.(??)
-Soldiers to protect the west.
- Rep. by Population ???
-Idea of colonies governing
was new => nobody
knew how it would
work.
-Elgin’s Rebellion Losses Bill
Left hard feelings => $ to
Rebels???
THE CONFERENCES
CHARLOTTETOWN
CONFERENCE 1864
The Maritimes met to discuss
union. Ended up agreeing to
meet to discuss confederation.
QUEBEC CONFERENCE 1864
Here the delegates planned the birth of a
new nation, Canada.The 72 Resolutions
laid the foundations
of the federation.
THE BNA ACT
CANADA’S CONSTITUTION
1867
CANADA’S FOUR PROVINCES
Ontario, Nova Scotia, Quebec, New Brunswick
GOVERNMENT
NATIONAL
PROVINCIAL
UI, Postal, Census, “Indians”
Fisheries, Currency, Criminal
Law, Trade and Commerce
Prov. Tax, Forests, Prisons,
Hospitals, Municipal, Saloon
Licences, Courts
POWERS OF GOVERNMENT
CANADA’S THREE BRANCHES OF GOV’T
Executive Branch
Legislative Branch
Judicial Branch
G.G. David Johnson
MONTESQUIEU
BALANCE OF POWER – Power
should be distributed over three
branches so that no one person or
branch can obtain absolute power.
CANADA
THREE LEVELS OF
GOVERNMENT
$ Spending
NOTE – The USA = a republic with powerful states.
A GUIDE TO GOVERNMENT
THREE LEVELS
OF GOVERNMENT
EDERAL PROVINCIAL MUNICIPAL
B.C.
CANADA
P.G.
OTTAWA
P.G.
VICTORIA
PROVINCIAL & FEDERAL TAXES$
CORPORATE TAX
INCOME TAX
AD VALOREM TAX (HST)
EXCISE TAXES (ALCOHOL/GAS
PAYROLL TAX
$ MUNICIPAL $
Most $ comes from
Property Taxes
RESPONSIBILITIES
National Defence,
Immigration, Fisheries
Social Serv. ,
Education, Forestry,
Health
Water, Snow Removal
THREE BRANCHES OF
GOVERNMENT
THREE PARTS OF
GOVERNMENT
Bills must pass through all three parts of government in order to become
laws in Canada.
HEAD OF STATE
DAVID JOHNSON
HOUSE OF
COMMONS
SENATE
GOVERNOR
GENERAL
THE HOUSE OF COMMONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
SPEAKER
PAGES
GOV’T MEMBERS
OPPOSITION
PM
OPPOSITION LEADER
2ND OPPOSITION LEADER
CLERK
9. MACE
ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL
Can make laws without parliament
10. HANSARD
(Emergencies / Senate apt.)
11. SGT AT ARMS
MACE
12. THE BAR
SYMBOL OF POWER
13. INTERPRETERS
CABINET
14. PRESS GALLERY
(PM & his ‘best friends’
15. PUBLIC GALLERY
16. TV CAMERAS
Macdonald to Canada
Cartoon Review
Macdonald to Canada
Cartoon Review
Pros Cons
X
Charlottetown Conference
RR
Taxes
Security Rep By Pop
Trade
Maritimes
Stable Gov’t Culture
Fenians
Independence
Lost
Dominion Of Canada
1867
Brt. Empire
Canada
1867
Quebec Conference
Canada
1965
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