Geography Handbook Maps

Geography Handbook
Maps: Making the Most of
Them (pM4 & M5)
map- a drawing, on a flat surface, of a part of the
• All maps will usually contain this information:
title, key, locator map, scale, latitude &
longitude, boundaries, & a compass rose.
Title- tells you what kind of information the map
Key- also called a legend, it explains the symbols
for the map.
Locator map- relates the area to a larger area.
• Scale- allows you to tell
distances between places.
Latitude and longitude- tell the
exact location.
Boundaries- divides different
Compass rose- tells where north
is on the map.
• Turn to page 608 & 609. Find
the title, key, locator map, scale,
latitude & longitude, boundaries,
compass rose.
An Inset Map/ Grid
Insets- a main map with one or
more smaller maps.
Grid- Evenly spaced horizontal
and vertical lines which help
you locate a particular area on
the map.
• Find an inset map in your
• Answer questions p. M6 & M7.
Distance Scale p.M8
• Distances on maps are smaller than
the real distances on Earth. Why?
• Distance scale- shows how much
smaller the map scale is to its actual
• Usually a certain # of inches stands for
miles or centimeters for kilometers.
• What is the distance in miles from
Kaduna to Port Harcourt? Porto-Novo
to N’Djumena? & Benim City to
Map Key p. M10
• To use a map you must know what its
colors or symbols stand for.
Cartographer- mapmaker
Key- also called a legend.
• Describe the map key on
p. 612 & 613.
• Do you think maps are more accurate
today than in the past? Why?
Compass Rose p. M11
Compass rose- is a small drawing
that shows directions on a map.
• Its tips point to the 4 cardinal
directions (N,S,E, & W). It also
shows intermediate directions.
• Intermediate directions- inbetween directions (NE, SE, NW, &
• Answer questions “Be a tourists in
New Zealand” p. m11.
Latitude p. M12
• You can locate things on earth if you
know latitude & longitude.
Equator- the line of latitude that runs
around the center of the Earth. (0
• Latitude lines show how far north or
south of the equator a place is located.
Latitude- lines run in a east/west
direction. They are called parallels.
• The Equator divides the Earth into the
Northern & Southern Hemispheres.
• Answer questions p. M12
Tropic of Cancer
• The Tropic of Cancer is located at 23.5 degrees N
• On June 21 the sun is directly overhead the Tropic
of Cancer at noon. It marks the first day of summer
for the Northern hemisphere. It is the farthest the
sun travels north.
• The Tropic of Capricorn is located at 23.5 degrees S
• On December 21 the sun is directly overhead the Tropic of
Capricorn at noon. It marks the first day of winter for the
Northern hemisphere. It is the farthest south the sun will
• The tropics is the area from the Tropic of Cancer to the
Tropic of Capricorn.
Longitude p. M13
Longitude- the vertical lines on a
map that go from the North Pole to
the South Pole. They are also called
Prime meridian- the starting point
for longitude. (Zero degrees)
• The prime meridian runs through
Greenwich, England. It is
sometimes called the Greenwich
• Meridians are counted east & west
from the prime meridian. The
prime meridian & the international
date line divides the Earth into the
Western & Eastern Hemisphere.
• Answer questions M13
Latitude & Longitude
• Minutes and Seconds For precision
purposes, degrees of longitude and
latitude have been divided into minutes
(') and seconds ("). There are 60
minutes in each degree. Each minute is
divided into 60 seconds. Seconds can
be further divided into tenths,
hundredths, or even thousandths.
International Date Line p. M13
• International Date Line- halfway around the
world from the prime meridian is the 180 degree
meridian. This
is the point where at
midnight a new day begins.
• If it is Sunday west of the
line, it is Saturday to the
east of it.
• Why do you think the line is
not straight?
• Answer questions M14
Special Purpose Maps
• The 2 most common kinds of maps
are political & physical maps.
Political map- uses color to show
nations & states.
Physical map- shows natural features
of the land.
Special-purpose maps- have only 1
purpose, such as precipitation, crops
or oil.
Precipitation- moisture that falls to
Earth as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
* Find a political map, physical map,
and a special purpose map in you
Product mapsshow resources,
such as coal, are
found where
crops, such as
cotton, are grown.
• Questions
p. M16
Product Map
Natural Resource Map
Natural resource map- a map that shows
resources from nature (forests, coal, iron,
Time Zones
• The sun doesn’t hit all parts
of the world at the same
time. When it is light in 1
part of the world, it is dark
in another part.
• The Earth is divided into
24 time zones- one for each
hour of the day.
• Time zones often zigzag
when they cross land so
that people living in the
same area have the same
• We are in the Eastern
Standard Time Zone.
• Questions M19
Daylight Savings Time
• Daylight Saving Time begins
at 2:00 a.m. local time on
the second Sunday in
• On the first Sunday in
November areas on Daylight
Saving Time return to
Standard Time at 2:00 a.m.
• It was Ben Franklin’s idea.
He wanted to put the
daylight during the summer
to better use.
Why Aren’t All Maps of the Same
Place Alike?
• It is difficult to show the curved surface of the Earth on a flat map. It
is like flattening a ball.
• Parts of the surface will stick up, causing distortions.
• On most maps, the regions near the center are the most accurate.
Regions farther away from the center are distorted.
• Compare the size of Greenland & Antarctica on different maps.
There are 5 oceans in the world. The
oceans in order from largest to
smallest are:
Southern (new in 2000)
About 70% of the Earth’s surface is
covered by oceans. About 97% of
the Earth’s water is found in the
oceans. The Southern Ocean
surrounds Antarctica.
• Continents are the large land masses on the
Earth. There are 7 continents in order from
largest to smallest are:: Asia, Africa, North
America, South America, Antarctica,
Europe, & Australia.
• Greenland is a part of N. America. It is
sometimes called a subcontinent.
• One super continent existed about
250 million years ago before they
were separated into the current
• Fossil evidence of Pangea
includes similar & identical
species on continents that are now
far apart.
• Amasia is possible future super
continent that could be formed in
about 250 million years by the
merger of America with Asia
because of ocean plates. If this
happens the Atlantic will be the
largest ocean.
• A hemisphere is a half of a globe. The earth has 4
• The Equator splits the Earth into the Northern &
Southern Hemispheres.
• The Prime Meridian splits the Earth into Western &
Eastern Hemispheres.
• Which continent has all 4 hemispheres?
Orange Activity p. M21
1. You may work with your 3 O’clock.
2. Find another group to double date with. (Make a
group of 4)
3. One group member will get an orange & a paper
4. Another group member will use a permanent marker
to draw outlines of the continents of the world on the
5. Have a different group member peel the orange so that
there is only 1 peel.
6. A fourth group member will try to flatten the peel.
7. Write a paragraph explaining what happened to your
map on the orange. Put all group members names on it
& put it your class period’s IN tray.
8. You may divide up your orange evenly & eat it.
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