Chapter 3: Planting Colonies Logan Greene AP United States History West Blocton High School Chapter Objectives • What role did the fur trade and fur traders play in the success of French colonies? • How did the English colonies in and around Jamestown of the early seventeenth century differ from those in New England later in that same century? • Why was tobacco so important to the economies of the Southern colonies? • How were the Dutch able to successfully establish New Netherland along the eastern seaboard of America? • How were the societies of the West Indies and Carolina different from societies in other parts of North America? The French • Despite the early failures in exploration the French brought back furs which drastically expanded demand in Europe • Colonies that farmed were needed to set up outposts for fur traders – Quebec (1608): Started by Champlain – Montreal (1642): Started by Jesuits • By 1700 New France had about 15000 settlers (only about 7% of English colonies) The Fur Trade • The entire idea of New France was based around fur • The French did not hunt, trap, or prepare the furs they simply traded with the Indians for the furs • Indians saw this as a greater alliance between themselves and the French • New France was consistently ruled by royal appointed governors although they sometimes disobeyed royal orders • Courers de bois (“woods runners”) were independent French fur traders The English and Jamestown • After the failure at Roanoke a group of investors convinced King James I to allow them to attempt colonization • They formed a joint-stock company where investors bought shares of the company expecting a return • In 1607 this company landed 104 men in present day Virginia and they founded Jamestown • Hoping to find gold the settlers only found disease and death in the swamp they called home. By 1608 only 38 were still alive Jamestown • With total failure on the horizon 28 year old John Smith took over the colony and instilled strict discipline • “He that will not worke shall not eate” revitalized the colony • Without Smith the colony again suffered • By 1610 only sixty of 500 new colonists survived Headright System • Having difficulty bringing people to their colony of death (my term) the governors devised the headright system • This gave each 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way to Virginia and another 50 to them if they paid for others 1619 • Three important developments occurred in 1619 – 1) Females came to Virginia – 2) First African slaves arrive in Virginia – 3) House of Burgesses founded which was the first legislative body in the new world Indian Relations • The increasing populations pushed by the headright system strained relations with the Native Americans • War broke out quickly but the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas helped keep the peace for a time • With Pocahontas’ death in 1617 and the new chief Opechancanough ruling the Natives violence intensified • By 1624 the situation had degenerated so badly that the colony came under royal control Tobacco • In 1617 the first shipment of Virginia tobacco arrived in England • Tobacco exploded in Virginia as the colony became single mindedly based on the product • A large labor force was necessary as the crop took 9 months of work • Indentured servants filled the void, these were workers who agreed to work for a set number of years in exchange for passage • Most died in poverty or of disease/mistreatment • Despite the success of tobacco most Virginians lived very hard lives during the 17th century Maryland • Due to Virginia’s success (finally) King Charles I granted a huge parcel of land to Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore – This made the colony a proprietary colony which meant Calvert owned, administered, and had total control • Maryland was established specifically to be a haven for Catholics • However, Cecilius died before settlement began and once people did come to the Colony they were mostly Protestant. Maryland • By the 1650’s the Calverts were losing control of their colony due to the unhappiness of the Protestants • In response in 1649 Maryland approved the Act for Religious Toleration, the first act in the New World guaranteeing religious freedom for all Christians • By 1660 Maryland went from a haven for Catholics to basically a clone of Virginia built upon Tobacco Pilgrims and Plymouth • The Plymouth colony was founded in 1620 in present day Massachusetts • Founded by religious separatists who felt the Church of England was not pure enough, therefore they were know as Puritans • By the end of the first winter half the settlers died of starvation and disease • The area Native Americans, including Squanto and Samoset, helped the Pilgrims survive. In 1621 they gathered for a celebratory feast we now commemorate as Thanksgiving • Plymouth remained small, weak, and poor Massachusetts Bay • In 1629 a group of Puritans obtained a royal charter and a joint stock company, the Massachusetts Bay Colony • In 1630 a 1000 men women and children lead by John Winthrop arrived in Massachusetts • The Puritans believed in a covenant with God and watching each other constantly to insure everyone was behaving • This created a very stable but ordered society Massachusetts Bay Colony • Massachusetts Bay grew quickly and peacefully until the first major incident in the New World: The Pequot War • As the Massachusetts settlers expanded westward they came into conflict with the Pequot tribe of natives • The war erupted over trade with the Dutch and the loss of Pequot authority • The war was brutal including a massacre by the English of a native village of women and children Connecticut • As more settlers moved in following the Pequot war the Connecticut River Valley became populated, eventually splitting off into its own colony • The colony published The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut and was granted royal charter status in 1662 Rhode Island • The constant control of Massachusetts angered some Puritans • Roger Williams was a charismatic leader in Massachusetts who preached again the constant control • Williams escaped and purchased the land for Rhode Island from Natives • Rhode Island became a home for dissenting peoples against the Puritans Anne Hutchison • Anne Hutchison began holding religious meetings in her Boston house in 1634 • Many prominent puritan leaders believed her to be a threat and she was put on trial • She was found guilty and banished from the colony • Hutchison eventually made her way to Roger Williams’ Rhode Island colony Early New England • As opposed to the sprawling plantations and farms New Englanders were centered around towns • Religion was paramount among the mostly puritan settlers • Farming was difficult due to the soil so they focused on livestock and achieving modest prosperity The Carolinas • A proprietary colony founded by supporters of King Charles II in 1663 • Founded on the premise of the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina which balanced property wealth and political power • The plan never happened as Virginians moved in and settled wherever they pleased • Eventually North Carolina separated and became a tobacco colony and South Carolina became a rice colony with some of the harshest slave codes in the world and some of the wealthiest planters in the New World. Pennsylvania • Founded in 1681 by William Penn, a Quaker, as repayment of a debt owed to him by the King • Penn called Pennsylvania his “Holy Experiment” as he wished it to be a place of tolerance • Eventually infighting and squabbling among colonists destroyed Penn’s idea of a tolerant perfect society • However, Pennsylvania became one of the most profitable and successful of all English colonies The Dutch • The Dutch Republic was the leading merchant country in Europe • The most important Dutch New World outpost was New Netherland on Manhattan Island which they established by making strong ties with the Iroquois • New Netherland never grew to a large colony and thus had problems when it angered Native Americans • By 1650 the investment was starting to turn sour for the Dutch New York • In 1664 the English essentially took over New Netherland without a fight and renamed it New York • The colony quickly grew and the English encouraged the Dutch traders to stay and carry on business • By 1700 the colony had a population of 20,000 Chapter Objectives • What role did the fur trade and fur traders play in the success of French colonies? • How did the English colonies in and around Jamestown of the early seventeenth century differ from those in New England later in that same century? • Why was tobacco so important to the economies of the Southern colonies? • How were the Dutch able to successfully establish New Netherland along the eastern seaboard of America? • How were the societies of the West Indies and Carolina different from societies in other parts of North America?