Chapter 3 The Industrial Revolution is the name for the birth of the modern industry and the social changes that accompanied the resulting industrial growth. It occurred from the mid1700’s to the mid 1800’s. Water-powered textile mill Cotton Gin Muskets with interchangeable parts Steamboats Telegraph Networks of roads New canals Began in the British textile industry when British inventors created machines that used power from running water and steam engines to spin and weave cloth. Change from nearly all physical labor to a machinepowered based industry. Roads- by 1840 a network of roads connected most cities and towns in the United States, promoting travel and trade. Canals- In 1825 the 363-mile-long Erie Canal opened, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. Over the next 15 years, more than 3,000 canals were built in the Northeast. Video Clip about the Building of the Erie Canal Railroads- In 1830 the first steam-powered train ran in the United States. By 1840 there were about 3000 miles of track in the country. The railroad became a important means of travel and transport. Telegraph- In 1840 Samuel Morse Patented the first practical telegraph. The telegraph sent messages electronically through wires across the nation. Samuel Slater illegally brought knowledge of the new British machines to America. By 1810 there were more than 60 mills along streams in New England. The innovation which allowed mills to weave thread into cloth took place in the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, where the textile industry boomed. Because of the large number of textiles and factories in the cities people began moving to the cities in large numbers looking for work. Due to the availability of jobs in the cities, and higher pay, farmers moved to the cities looking for work. In 1820 only 7 percent of Americans lived in cities. Within 30 years, the percentage more than doubled. Because of this the number of houses and buildings within cities greatly increased. Urban areas were produced in great numbers. This led to some appalling living conditions. US Population Distribution in 1850. Cotton revolutionized the South, but only after a machine called the cotton Gin made largescale cotton production possible. Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin which separated the seeds from the usable part of the cotton. A little video on the Industrial Revolution in America Cotton became highly demanded. Cotton was used in the textile factories in the north to produce highly demanded clothing. As a result, many Americans became cotton farmers in the south. The cotton still needed to be prepared and planted so slavery quickly spread in greater numbers. Cotton plantations increased in number throughout America. North South Economic Base Industrial Manufacturing and Trade Agriculture both plantation and small scale farming Landscape Urban Rural Labor System Large numbers of immigrants and women fill jobs in manufacturing plants Slave labor used on plantations to maximize profits and production Transportation & Communication Large numbers of railroads, canals, and telegraphs make travel and communication easy. Fewer railroads and large rivers mean overland travel is a must. Some large port cities Americans believed westward expansion was inevitable. In face, some believed it was Americas God given right to settle land all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Manifest Destiny! As a result westward trails were established: Santa Fe Trail- led from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico The Oregon Trail- The longest and most famous trail. The 2000 mile long trail stretched from Independence, Missouri, to the rich faming lands of the Willamette Valley in the Oregon Country The Mormon Trail- In 1830 Joseph Smith founded a church called The Church of Jesus Christ Latter-Day Saints, commonly called the Mormon Church. Because the Mormon faith differed from other faiths, Mormons were persecuted and forced from their homes. Many Mormons migrated West to find a place where they could practice their religion freely. This was the route they followed. In 1848 a carpenter discovered gold in the American River at John Sutter’s sawmill in northern California. Soon a mass migration of people from all over the world, including America, flocked to California in search for riches. In 1849 80,000 people moved to California. This population boom made California eligible for statehood. In 1850, California became the 31rst state. By 1854 as many as 300,000 people had migrated to California. Most of the miners who went to California moved into camps in the gold fields. Through the trails created to California, westward expansion increased. More than 350,000 migrants followed the trails West. By 1869 railroads extended from the East coast to the West coast. The Oregon Treaty- A treaty signed by President Polk which created a boundary between British-Canada and what is Oregon today. Communication links- During early westward expansion, mail through the Pony Express was used to communicate from the East to the West. By 1861 the telegraph allowed quick communication between the East and West. Native Americans were forced out of their homes and were often killed to allow for easier western expansion. Native Americans were continually pushed further West and continued to fight with settlers in the West. Americans eventually sought to claim Texas as they moved West. By 1800 Spain had three settlements in Texas and were trying to convert the Native Americans there into Christians. In 1820 Americans set their eyes on claiming Texas. Moses Austin, a banker from Missouri, approached Spanish officials in Texas with a plan he called the Texas venture. Austin proposed that in exchange for land he would build a colony in Texas. The Spanish, looking to increase their settlements in Texas, agreed. When Moses Austin died his son took over the settlement. By 1823 Austin’s colony was established and by 1824 nearly 300 families lived in the colony. However, in 1821 Mexico became independent after a decade long struggle with Spain. Because of this, Americans in Texas had to surrender their American citizenship, swear allegiance to Mexico, adopt the Roman Catholic Religion, and hold land for seven years to be considered a Texan. Stephen Austin sought independence for Texas for the Americans who lived there. When he approached Mexican leaders to ask for independence the new leader Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna refused. Instead Santa Anna, in order to create a more centralized Mexican government, suspended some of the powers of Texas and its citizens. On March 2, 1836, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. Soon after, Mexico went to war with Texas. The Alamo- a famous battle during the Texas revolution in which 200 Texans (with the help of men such as David Crockett) held off a siege of 6,000 men for 12 days and nights. On April 21st, in the battle of San Jacinto, Texas captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign treaties recognizing Texan independence. Texas became an independent country: it was named the Republic of Texas. Mexico still refused to acknowledge the independence of Texas. Texas needed to gain a stronger ally to keep Mexico from attacking them again. Sam Houston, the new leader of Texas, sought to annex Texas and join the American Union. Texans voted unanimously for annexation. Under certain conditions and with hesitance from the Union due to the substantial Texas debt, Texas was accepted to the Union on December 29th, 1845. Immediately after annexation, Mexico cut off its diplomatic ties with the United States. Mexico still considered Texas to be Mexican territory. Soon a boundary dispute followed between Mexico and America. Mexico, still frustrated with the annexation, refused to give further land to America. With Manifest Destiny in mind, America declared war on Mexico in order to protect Texas and obtain more land in the West. In September 1846, general Winfield Scott landed on the Eastern coast of Mexico. Within a matter of months the U.S. marched inland and captured New Mexico, California, and Mexico’s capital city. Mexico was forced to surrender. Signed in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War. Under the treaty Mexico lost its claim to Texas. Also, Mexico was forced to cede a huge tract of land, the Mexican Cession, to the United States. The U.S. received land in the present day states of New Mexico, California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Wyoming. In return the U.S. government agreed to pay Mexico $15 million if it dropped all debts for the United States. America forced large amounts of Native Americans out of the West. Through the policy of Manifest Destiny, the U.S. government greatly increased the size of the country. Technology greatly strengthened communication and travel between the East and the West. As a result of War, America gained Texas and a great deal of land in the West.