Industrialization, Urbanization, and Westward Expansion

Chapter 3
The Industrial Revolution is the name for the
birth of the modern industry and the social
changes that accompanied the resulting
industrial growth. It occurred from the mid1700’s to the mid 1800’s.
Water-powered textile mill
Cotton Gin
Muskets with interchangeable parts
Networks of roads
New canals
Began in the British textile
industry when British
inventors created machines
that used power from
running water and steam
engines to spin and weave
Change from nearly all
physical labor to a machinepowered based industry.
Roads- by 1840 a network of roads connected
most cities and towns in the United States,
promoting travel and trade.
Canals- In 1825 the 363-mile-long Erie Canal
opened, connecting the Great Lakes with the
Atlantic Ocean. Over the next 15 years, more
than 3,000 canals were built in the Northeast.
Video Clip about the
Building of the Erie
Railroads- In 1830 the first
steam-powered train ran
in the United States. By
1840 there were about
3000 miles of track in the
country. The railroad
became a important
means of travel and
Telegraph- In 1840 Samuel
Morse Patented the first
practical telegraph. The
telegraph sent messages
electronically through
wires across the nation.
Samuel Slater illegally brought knowledge of
the new British machines to America.
By 1810 there were more than 60 mills along
streams in New England.
The innovation which allowed mills to weave
thread into cloth took place in the city of
Lowell, Massachusetts, where the textile
industry boomed.
Because of the large number of textiles and
factories in the cities people began moving to
the cities in large numbers looking for work.
Due to the availability of jobs in the cities, and
higher pay, farmers moved to the cities looking
for work.
In 1820 only 7 percent of Americans lived in
cities. Within 30 years, the percentage more
than doubled.
Because of this the number of houses and
buildings within cities greatly increased. Urban
areas were produced in great numbers.
This led to some appalling living conditions.
US Population
Distribution in
Cotton revolutionized the South, but only after
a machine called the cotton Gin made largescale cotton production possible.
Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin which
separated the seeds from the usable part of the
A little video on the
Industrial Revolution in
Cotton became highly demanded. Cotton was
used in the textile factories in the north to
produce highly demanded clothing.
As a result, many Americans became cotton
farmers in the south. The cotton still needed to
be prepared and planted so slavery quickly
spread in greater numbers. Cotton plantations
increased in number throughout America.
Economic Base
Industrial Manufacturing
and Trade
Agriculture both plantation
and small scale farming
Labor System
Large numbers of
immigrants and women fill
jobs in manufacturing plants
Slave labor used on
plantations to maximize
profits and production
Large numbers of railroads,
canals, and telegraphs make
travel and communication
Fewer railroads and large
rivers mean overland travel
is a must. Some large port
expansion was
inevitable. In
face, some
believed it was
Americas God
given right to
settle land all the
way to the
Pacific Ocean.
As a result westward trails were established:
Santa Fe Trail- led from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe,
New Mexico
The Oregon Trail- The longest and most famous trail. The 2000
mile long trail stretched from Independence, Missouri, to the rich
faming lands of the Willamette Valley in the Oregon Country
The Mormon Trail- In 1830 Joseph Smith founded a church called
The Church of Jesus Christ Latter-Day Saints, commonly called
the Mormon Church. Because the Mormon faith differed from
other faiths, Mormons were persecuted and forced from their
homes. Many Mormons migrated West to find a place where they
could practice their religion freely. This was the route they
In 1848 a carpenter discovered gold in the
American River at John Sutter’s sawmill in
northern California.
Soon a mass migration of people from all
over the world, including America, flocked
to California in search for riches.
In 1849 80,000 people moved to California.
This population boom made California
eligible for statehood. In 1850, California
became the 31rst state. By 1854 as many as
300,000 people had migrated to California.
Most of the miners who went to California
moved into camps in the gold fields.
Through the trails created to California,
westward expansion increased.
More than 350,000 migrants followed the trails West. By 1869
railroads extended from the East coast to the West coast.
The Oregon Treaty- A treaty signed by President Polk which
created a boundary between British-Canada and what is Oregon
Communication links- During early westward expansion, mail
through the Pony Express was used to communicate from the East
to the West. By 1861 the telegraph allowed quick communication
between the East and West.
Native Americans were forced out of their homes and were often
killed to allow for easier western expansion. Native Americans
were continually pushed further West and continued to fight with
settlers in the West.
Americans eventually sought to claim Texas as they moved West.
By 1800 Spain had three settlements in Texas and were trying to
convert the Native Americans there into Christians.
In 1820 Americans set their eyes on claiming Texas.
Moses Austin, a banker from Missouri, approached Spanish officials in Texas with a
plan he called the Texas venture. Austin proposed that in exchange for land he would
build a colony in Texas. The Spanish, looking to increase their settlements in Texas,
agreed. When Moses Austin died his son took over the settlement. By 1823 Austin’s
colony was established and by 1824 nearly 300 families lived in the colony.
However, in 1821 Mexico became independent after a decade long
struggle with Spain.
Because of this, Americans in Texas had to surrender their American
citizenship, swear allegiance to Mexico, adopt the Roman Catholic Religion,
and hold land for seven years to be considered a Texan.
Stephen Austin sought independence for Texas
for the Americans who lived there. When he
approached Mexican leaders to ask for
independence the new leader Antonio Lopez
de Santa Anna refused. Instead Santa Anna, in
order to create a more centralized Mexican
government, suspended some of the powers of
Texas and its citizens.
On March 2, 1836, Texas declared its
independence from Mexico.
Soon after, Mexico went to war with Texas.
The Alamo- a famous battle during the Texas revolution in which
200 Texans (with the help of men such as David Crockett) held off
a siege of 6,000 men for 12 days and nights.
On April 21st, in the battle of San Jacinto, Texas captured Santa
Anna and forced him to sign treaties recognizing Texan
Texas became an independent country: it was named the Republic
of Texas.
Mexico still refused to acknowledge the independence of Texas.
Texas needed to gain a stronger ally to keep Mexico from
attacking them again. Sam Houston, the new leader of Texas,
sought to annex Texas and join the American Union.
Texans voted unanimously for annexation.
Under certain conditions and with hesitance from the Union due
to the substantial Texas debt, Texas was accepted to the Union on
December 29th, 1845.
Immediately after annexation, Mexico cut off its
diplomatic ties with the United States. Mexico still
considered Texas to be Mexican territory.
Soon a boundary dispute followed between Mexico
and America. Mexico, still frustrated with the
annexation, refused to give further land to America.
With Manifest Destiny in mind, America declared war
on Mexico in order to protect Texas and obtain more
land in the West.
In September 1846, general Winfield Scott landed on
the Eastern coast of Mexico. Within a matter of months
the U.S. marched inland and captured New Mexico,
California, and Mexico’s capital city. Mexico was
forced to surrender.
Signed in 1848, the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the
Mexican-American War.
Under the treaty Mexico lost its claim to
Texas. Also, Mexico was forced to cede a
huge tract of land, the Mexican Cession,
to the United States.
The U.S. received land in the present
day states of New Mexico, California,
Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and
In return the U.S. government agreed to
pay Mexico $15 million if it dropped all
debts for the United States.
America forced large amounts of Native
Americans out of the West.
Through the policy of Manifest Destiny, the
U.S. government greatly increased the size of
the country.
Technology greatly strengthened
communication and travel between the East
and the West.
As a result of War, America gained Texas and a
great deal of land in the West.
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