Hazmat & Bioterrorism

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Hazmat
&
Bioterrorism
By: David Urquhart
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Any substance which may pose an
unreasonable risk to health and safety of
operating or emergency personnel, the
public, and/or the environment if not
properly controlled during handling,
storage, manufacture, processing,
packaging, use, disposal, or transportation.”
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Hazard:
Anything posing an unreasonable risk to
health and/or life safety.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Exposure:
A process by which people, animals and
equipment come in contact with a hazardous
material.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Contamination:
The direct transfer of a hazardous material by
contact.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Secondary Contamination:
Indirect exposure where a contaminant is
carried away from the “hot zone” and is
transferred to another person or object.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Asphyxiation:

The consequence of not enough oxygen
getting to the cells of the body to keep
metabolism working.

Normal concentration is 20.7% (sea level)
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
There are two processes to asphyxiation.
1. Simple/Physical:
 Caused by decreased levels of oxygen in the
air. Below 20.7%.
 Not enough oxygen reaches the blood to be
absorbed through the lungs.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT)
Asphyxiation cont.
2. Chemical:
 Less oxygen being taken up by the blood in
lungs due to the foreign gaseous substance
being picked up by the blood in preference to
oxygen
 Carbon Monoxide
HAZMAT Zones
Warm Zone
Contamination Control Zone
Appropriate PPE
Decon Corridor
Life-Saving Emergency Care
Hot Zone
Contamination Present
Appropriate PPE
Limited number of personnel
Everything inside considered
contaminated
Cold Zone
CP Location
Treatment/Transport Areas
Staging
Medical Monitoring/Rehab
Hazmat Training
There are four levels of hazmat training in
North America (NFPA)
1. Hazmat Awareness
2. Hazmat Operations
3. Hazmat Technician
4. Hazmat Specialist
Hazmat Awareness
All responders who may arrive first on scene and
discover hazardous substance
Focus

Recognition of HAZMAT incidents

Basic identification techniques

Personal protection
Hazmat Identification
Ascertain the material involved if possible.
Often one of the more difficult portions of
hazmat.
Gathering Info
Ascertain the following:
 Properties
- Solids, gases, fluids
 Amounts
- Kg’s or Lt’s
 Physical State
- gaseous plume, pooling…
 Location of Release
- Rear building, side of railcar…
Gathering Info

Survey the incident.

Identify hazardous materials if safe to do so.

Your information is valuable. Your safety is
the utmost priority.
Gathering Info

Identify the presence and conditions of any
containers involved

Assess conditions at the scene



exposures
injuries
weather/wind direction
Typical hazards
Typical hazards at hazmat scenes:

Heat/cold related injuries

Mechanical-explosions,falling objects etc

Poison
Typical hazards
Typical hazards at hazmat scenes:

Corrosives

Asphyxiation

Psychological
Identification
Occupancy and location:





Production facilities
Manufacturing plants
Storage facilities
Warehouses
Loading docks….
Identification
Drug labs:
 Very common
 Hard to find
 Very hazardous,
considered hot zone.If
contaminated, stay
outside and notify!!
Identification

Drug labs are mobile,
static, hotel rooms,
churches….

Very dangerous due
to booby traps set.
Identification
Transportation:
 Railcars

Cargo trailers

Planes

Civilian vehicles…..
Railcar Identification

Note placards

Note DOT #

Note hazard label

Note pressurized tank
(round ends)
Railcar Identification

A pressurized railcar

170,000 Lt’s

Fireball radius - 240m

Min observation - 950m

Evacuation - 4500m
Railcar Identification

Note placards

Note material label

Note non-pressurized
(flat ends)
Railcar Identification

Non - pressurized
130,000 Lt’s

Fireball radius -150m

Min Observation 800m

Evacuation - 3800m
Cargo Trailers

Note placards

Note company name

Note pressurized
Cargo Trailers
Pressurized:
 43,000 Lt’s
 Fireball radius - 80m
 Min.Observation 320m
 Evacuation - 1800m
Non Pressurized:
 37,000 Lt’s
 Fireball radius 50m
 Min. observation 250m
 Evacuation - 1000m
Hazmat References

Container markings
Hazmat References

Material Safety Data
Sheets

MSDS
Hazmat References

Hazardous Material
Vaults
Hazmat References

WHMIS
Hazmat References

Shipping papers
Hazmat References

Placards
Hazmat References

UN Number:

these four digit
numbers are specific
to a chemical or
chemical family tree
Hazmat References

Driver

If he hasn’t fled already!
Hazmat References

Chemtrec

Chemtel

24 hr toll free

24 hr toll free

800-424-9300

800-255-3024

Poison Control
800-567-8911
Levels of Protection
Level A (highest)
 Gas / liquid tight.

Full encapsulating

Portable oxygen
within suit
Levels of Protection
Level B
 High level of protection
for respiratory, less for
skin

Portable oxygen outside
hooded suit
Levels of Protection
Level C

Hooded chemical
resistant suit

Air purifying
protection masks
Levels of Protection
Level D

Bunker gear, no special
attire.
Decon

Decon for fire fighters
takes place in the
“warm zone”

The decon team may
be dressed in a suit
no more than one
level lower than the
hazmat team
Decon

decon for civilians
should be done
expeditiously
courteous (if possible)

Victims should be
naked or near naked
by the end
Decon

Emergency Decon is
done in the hot zone
and warm zone if life
threatening.

Have victims take as
much clothing off as
possible
Hospital Notification
Hospital Notification

Number of victims

What contaminants are suspected

What has been done already

Vital signs / normal notification
Hospital Notification

Possibility of moving a hazmat situation
from one scene and creating another

If mass casualty, the hospital may want to
use a different location, such as arenas,
town-halls, outdoors, etc.
Bioterrorism

The waging of terrorism by using disease
producing bacteria, virus, toxins to destroy
crops, livestock and human life.
Bioterrorism History
14th Century
Bubonic plague victims were catapulted
over castle walls that were under siege.

British introduced blankets previously
used by smallpox victims to the French
friendly native Indian population.
Bioterrorism Cont.
1930’s:

The bio-warfare manufacturing era began.
U.S., Japan, China and Germany all
producing bio-weapons.

Japan used Anthrax on POW’s to test it’s
effectiveness and limitations
Bioterrorism Cont.

China experimented with ceramic bombs
filled with plague infected fleas.These
bombs were dropped on small villages,
inducing the plague.
1943:
 By this time the U.S. had 7 incapacitating
lethal agents in their stockpile.
Bioterrorism Cont.

By 1969 President Nixon renounced bioweapons and had all stocks and seeds
destroyed

1980’s, Russia had stockpiled 1500 metric
tonnes of plague for their ICBM’s
Bioterrorism Cont.
1995 – Japan

Sarin gas attack on
the Tokyo subway.

12 Dead

6000 injured
Bioterrorism Cont.
2001 U.S.
 Anthrax mailed to
politicians and
celebrities

5 dead

22 sick
Bioterrorism Cont.
Indicators of terrorist activity:

Unusual number of sick humans/animals

Health care facilities reporting multiple signs and
symptoms

Unusual spray devices
Potential Targets

Public buildings

Military

Mass transit systems

Airports

High economic
impact

lndustrial facilities

Public assemblies

Telecomm facilities
Bibliography





Temple University:
www.templejc.ww.templejc.edu/dept/ems/
Pages/PowerPoint.html
Hazmat Response Book 2002 NFPA
Surviving the Hazmat Incident 1990
Essentials of Paramedic Care 2003
Hazmat Operations Manual JI 2003
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