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Chapter 13
“Urban Patterns”
Review from Chapter 12 – Define:
Urban
Rural
Urbanization
•Largest Cities in the world are now in LDCs
•Different lifestyle – Rural – know everyone, simple and calmer
Urban – know family and work mates, complicated,
stressful
•MSA (CMA) – Metropolitan Statistical Area or Census Metropolitan Area
– Urbanized area of influence. Toronto has the GTA.
•Micropolitan – smaller urban areas
Percent Urban Population
Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than
in LDCs.
Large Cities
Cities with 2 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.
The next slide contains an illustration of a
number of key terms in action in the city of
Toronto. Be prepared to take notes.
De-Urbanization
Counter Urbanization
Edge Cities – (Satellite Towns) New Market/Aurora
Greenbelt
Leap Frog – Woodbridge/King City
Urban
Sprawl
Urban Fringe
Steeles Ave.
401, 407, 400 etc are
considered Beltways and
growth occurs along them
Infill – 400 & 401
HWY 401
Yonge St.
Spine – University Ave.
Westerlies
(Winds)
Density Gradient –
Decrease away from CBD
Gentrification
Urban Renewal
Renovation
Heavy Industry
CBD
Downtown
Vertical Growth
Social area analysis:
The distribution of social characteristics in a census track may be
plotted on a map using GIS. This information creates an overall
picture of how various types of people are distributed in an area.
Groups do tend to segregate based on income, ethnicity and race.
GIS experts can map:
•Social class – income, education, occupation
•Age and Martial status
•Gender
•Race and ethnicity – Chinatowns, Little Italy, Greek town etc.
•What kind of decisions can private or public sectors make based
on information gathered from above?
Models of Urban Structure:
Concentric Zone Model – 1923 – E.W. Burgess
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•See diagram next slide
Concentric Zone Model
Burgess - In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings
surrounding the CBD.
The Sector Model – 1939 – Homer Hoyt
•Remember the pattern:
industry next to CBD, workers next to industry, middle class
acting as a buffer and then the high class .
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•See diagram
Sector Model
Hoyt - In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors
extending out from the CBD - transportation is key.
The Multi-Nuclei Model – 1945 – C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman
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•See diagram
Multiple Nuclei Model
Ullman and Harris - The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of
individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.
Does Toronto fit
the Concentric
model, Sector or
Multi-nuclei??
Both Concentric and Sector Models for the city of Barcelona
Indianapolis: Percent Renters
The distribution of renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model.
Indianapolis: Household Income
The distribution of high income households in Indianapolis is an example
of a sector model.
Indianapolis: Ethnic Patterns
The distribution of minorities in Indianapolis is an example of a multiple
nuclei model.
Peripheral Model developed by C.D. Harris (same guy who created the Multi-Nuclei
Theory)
This model relates more to the areas outside the city.
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The idea here is that the peripheral areas do not suffer
the problems of inner cities – the poor, deterioration,
crime, congestion BUT the periphery will suffer from the
problems of urban sprawl and segregation (being
disconnected from the rest of the city)
Peripheral Model of Urban Areas
The central city is surrounded by a ring road, around which are suburban areas
and edge cities, shopping malls, office parks, industrial areas, and service
complexes.
Using the models outside North America
These models do not work well in European cities – The
wealthy tend to live in an inner ring next to the center of the
city.
A Spine (broad avenue) is more prominent in European cities –
eg. The Champs-Elysees in Paris
The CBD is not necessarily the Geographic center of the city.
The Geographic center in European cities is usually the
ancient, historical center and the CBD is found outside the citycenter – Eg. Rome, Paris and London – these cities even have
height restrictions (even Washington D.C. has one)
The suburb really does not exist in Europe
Single family houses are rare – Condominium living is the
norm.
Colonial cites are similar to European cities. Most of
these cities are port cities for the obvious reason of
supplying the mother country.
These cities have pre-colonial parts (old quarters –
cramped houses and narrow streets) and European
parts (colonial additions – low density, better housing,
gardens)
The Latin American city stresses the Spine. Where the
rich push out from the center. Mexico city is a prime
example. See the next slide.
Many LDC cities since they cannot handle the growing
number of urban residences develop areas where
people build make shift homes (no electricity, water or
sanitation) on land that does not belong to them –
Shanty Towns – Squatter Settlements.
Latin American City Model
In many Latin American cities, the wealthy live in the inner city and in a sector
extending along a commercial spine.
Discuss the following Inner City Problems:
•Filtering
•Redlining
•Urban Renewal
•Public Housing – row housing, town housing
•White Flight/Block Busting
•Social Problems – inner city schools, poverty,
homeless, crime, racial segregation
•Ghettoization
•Annexation
•Gentrification
A word about Urban Renewal:
1. …
2. …
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5. …
6. …
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8. Toronto – Regent Park
Sometimes Urban Renewal leads to Urban Renovation – old
properties are not torn down but converted into lofts,
galleries, restaurants
Toronto – Mill Street district, Yorkville
Problems of the Suburbs:
•Importance of the automobile – made suburbs possible reshaped the city
•Density Gradient
•Edge Cities
•Urban Sprawl
•Lack of an infrastructure
•Segregation
•Zoning
•Mass (public) vs. Private Transportation – Rush Hour
•Smart Growth/New Urbanism
A word about Urban Sprawl (according to Anthony Downs):
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What effect will the price of gas have on Urban Sprawl?
What is going to happen to the big homes in Woodbridge
as the population ages?
Describe the following:
Conurbation
Megalopolis
Examples: BosNyWash, ChiPitts, SanSan, MonTorWin,
Tokaido, German Ruhr, Randstad
BOSNYWASH
Suburban Development in the
U.S. and U.K.
New housing in the U.K. is likely to be in planned new towns, while in the U.S.
growth occurs in discontinuous developments.
Urban Sprawl
Private vs. Public Transit
Cars
Bus
Bicycle/Scooters
London’s Underground
Paris and
It’s Metro
New York’s
Subway
Rome’s
Metropolitana
Tokyo’s Subway
Montreal’s
Metro
Guess who?
Smart Growth – New Urbanism:
•A new form of development to fight the negative effects of
Urban Sprawl.
•Build traditional neighbourhoods, removing the addiction of
the car and creating a sense of community.
•People not cars
•Urban sprawl builds houses first and then everything else –
schools, malls, offices are built afterwards to try and catch-up
– Smart Growth builds everything at once and it is built to
interact.
•Schools are built at the center of a residential area
connected to the homes with paths
•Streets are narrow, each home has a porch, grassy medians
in the middle of the street
•Commercial and work places are built into the plan – usually
on the outskirts of the residences
•Housing types are mixed
•Walking is encouraged – low order goods within reach
•Garages are set to the back of the home or in laneways
•Backyard faces into a park or a common area – Front
yard is the main focus of the house – spend more time in
the front
•Main streets will contain major stores and offices
•Parks become the nodes
•In some plans parks, schools and stores are at the
center of the community – this is called a Nodal Design
•MUD – Mixed Land-Use Development
Please see the next few slides and the teacher may draw
an example on the board.
Smart Growth
New Urbanism
Vocabulary List
Agglomeration
Barriadas
Bid-rent theory
Blockbusting
CBD (central business district)
Census tract
Centrality
Centralization
Central-place theory
Christaller, Walter
City
Cityscapes
Colonial city
Commercialization
Commuter zone
Concentric zone model
Counterurbanization
Decentralization
Deindustrialization
Early cities
Economic base (basic/nonbasic)
Edge city
Emerging cities
Employment structure
Entrepôt
Ethnic neighborhood
Favela
Female-headed household
Festival landscape
Gateway city
Gender
Gentrification
Ghetto
Globalization
Great cities
High-tech corridors
Hinterland
Hydraulic civilization
Indigenous city
In-filling
Informal sector
Infrastructure
Inner city
Invasion and succession
Lateral commuting
Medieval cities
Megacities
Megalopolis/conurbation
Metropolitan area
Multiple nuclei model
Multiplier effect
Neighborhood
Office park
Peak land value intersection
Planned communities
Postindustrial city
Postmodern urban landscape
Primate city
Racial steering
Rank-size rule
Redlining
Restrictive covenants
Sector model
Segregation
Settlement form (nucleated,
dispersed, elongated)
Shopping mall
Site/situation
Slum
Social structure
Specialization
Squatter settlement
Street pattern (grid, dendritic;
access, control)
Suburb
Suburbanization
Symbolic landscape
Tenement
Threshold/range
Town
Underclass
Underemployment
Urban growth rate
Urban function
Urban hearth area
Urban heat island
Urban hierarchy
Urban hydrology
Urban morphology
Urbanization
Urbanized population
World city
Zone in transition
Zoning
The End
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