12.1 Kush and Egypt Pages 310-314 The Big Idea: The kingdom of Kush, in the region of Nubia, was first conquered by Egypt but later conquered and ruled Egypt. Main Idea 1: Geography helped early Kush civilization develop in Nubia. • South of Egypt along the Nile, Africans established Kush, the first large kingdom in northeast Africa, in the region we now call Nubia. • Today, desert covers much of Nubia – located in the present-day country of Sudan. • In ancient times Nubia was very fertile due to the heavy rainfall that flooded the Nile every year. • Ancient Nubia was rich in valuable minerals such as gold, copper, and stone. Early Civilization in Nubia • Thanks to the Nile’s floods, farming villages thrived all along the Nile by about 3500 BC. • Over time some farmers became leaders of their villages. • Sometime around 2000 BC one of these leaders took control of other villages and made himself king of Kush. Early Civilization in Nubia • Early kings ruled from their capital at Kerma, on the Nile just south of a cataract, or stretch of rapids. • The cataracts were natural barriers against invaders. • As time passed Kushite society became more complex, with farmers, herders, priests, and artisans. Main Idea 2: Egypt controlled Kush for about 450 years. • Kushites traded many products to Egypt, including slaves, gold, copper, stone, ebony (a type of dark, heavy wood) and ivory (a white material taken from elephant tusks) • Kush grew wealthy and its army grew stronger. Egypt’s rulers were afraid that a powerful Kush might attack Egypt. • The pharaoh Thutmose I attacked Kush around 1500 BC and conquered all of Nubia north of the Fifth Cataract. He destroyed the Kushite palace. • Kush remained an Egyptian territory for about 450 years. Egypt’s influence over Kush grew tremendously. • When the New Kingdom in Egypt ended in the mid-1000s BC, Kush once again became independent. Main Idea 3: After winning its independence, Kush ruled Egypt and set up a new dynasty there. Conquest of Egypt • By about 850 BC Kush had regained its strength. • Kings of Kush ruled from the city of Napata. • In 751 BC a Kushite king named Kashta attacked and conquered Upper Egypt. • After Kashta died, his son Piankhi ruled. • By 716 Kush controlled all of Egypt. Kushite Dynasty • After the death of Piankhi his brother named Shabaka declared himself pharaoh, beginning the Kushite Dynasty. • Worked to restore old Egyptian cultural practices, such as pyramid-building • Preserved old Egyptian writings • Egyptian culture flourished. STATUE OF SHABAKA End of Kushite Rule in Egypt • Kushites remained strong in Egypt for about 40 years. • In the 670s and 660s BC Assyrians from Mesopotamia invaded and pushed the Kushites from Egypt. • The Assyrians iron weapons gave them a military advantage over the Kushite’s weaker weapons.