Chapter 16

Chapter 6 - The French
Revolution and Napoleon
Section 4 – The Age of Napoleon Begins
Napoleon Bonaparte I (1769-1821)
Emperor of France
Setting the Scene
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica, a
French-ruled island in the Mediterranean.
His family were minor nobles, but had little
money. At age nine, he was sent to France
to be trained for a military career. When the
revolution broke out, he was an ambitious
20-year-old lieutenant, eager to make a
name for himself.
I. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
During the revolution, Napoleon rose quickly
after winning major battles against the British
and Austrians
I. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
In 1799, he helped overthrow the Directory
and set up a three-man government known as
the Consulate
A portrait of the three Consuls (between 1799 and
1804 ), with Napoleon in the center
I. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
By 1804, Napoleon had acquired enough
power to assume the title Emperor of France
Napoleon on His Imperial Throne
by Jean Auguste Dominique
Ingres (1806)
II. France Under Napoleon
Napoleon consolidated his power by
strengthening the central government
"A Grateful France Proclaims Napoleon the First Emperor of the French"
II. France Under Napoleon
Napoleon controlled prices, encouraged new
industry, and built roads and canals
II. France Under Napoleon
He made peace with the Catholic Church in
the Concordat of 1801, recognizing religious
freedom for Catholics
Vers le retour à la paix religieuse
Towards the return to religious peace
II. France Under Napoleon
Napoleon's most lasting reform was a new law
code, which became known as the Napoleonic
III. Building an Empire
From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon won many
battles and created an empire
III. Building an Empire
In 1805, Napoleon tried to invade England but
his fleet was destroyed at the Battle of
III. Building an Empire
Napoleon waged economic warfare through
the Continental System, which closed
European ports to British goods
Section 5 - The End of an Era
Napoleon watched the battle for the Russian city
of Smolensk from a chair outside his tent. As fires
lit up the walled city, he exclaimed: "It's like
Vesuvius erupting. Don't you think this is a
beautiful sight?“ "Horrible, Sire," replied an aide.
"Bah!" snorted Napoleon. "Remember, gentlemen,
what a Roman emperor said: The corpse of an
enemy always smells sweet“ In 1812, Napoleon
pursued his dream of empire by invading Russia.
The campaign began a chain of events that
eventually led to his downfall. Napoleon's final
defeat brought an end to the era of the French
I. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
Many Europeans saw Napoleon’s armies as
foreign oppressors
Napoleon and his Staff
I. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
They resented the
Continental System and
Napoleon's effort to
impose French culture
Napoleon in His Study
by Jacques-Louis David,
I. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
Throughout Europe, nationalism unleashed
revolts against France
I. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
In 1812 the czar of Russia withdrew from the
Continental System and Napoleon responded
by invading
French in Moscow, 1812 (Artist unknown)
I. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
The Russians retreated, burning crops and
villages as they went - the "scorched earth"
I. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
Napoleon entered Moscow in September, but
because he couldn’t supply his army through
the winter, began his withdraw in October
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow (Adolph Northern)
II. Downfall of Napoleon
In 1813, Napoleon was defeated in the Battle
of the Nations at Leipzig. He abdicated and
was sent into exile
II. Downfall of Napoleon
Louis XVIII returned as king of France, but
many remained loyal to Napoleon
Louis XVIII, King of France (1814–24)
II. Downfall of Napoleon
In March 1815, Louis XVIII fled as Napoleon
returned to Paris in triumph
II. Downfall of Napoleon
On June 18,1815, the French were defeated at
the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon was
again forced into exile
III. The Congress of Vienna
European leaders met at the Congress of
Vienna to restore stability and order
The Great Powers of Europe met at Vienna from September 1, 1814,
to June 9, 1815 to settle the future boundaries of the continent
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