Ancient World History - Ash Grove R

Ancient World History
Chapter 3
Early Civilizations in India and
Section 1
► Cities
of Indus Valley
Geography of the Indian
► Located
in the region of South Asia or also
known as the subcontinent of India
 Large landmass that jets out from a continent
► Today
the second most populous region
► Mountains to the North
 Including the Himalayas
Geography of the Indian
Subcontinent (Con’t)
► Regions
 Three major zones
►just south of the mountains
 Ganges and Indus Rivers
► Named India after the Indus River
 Very arid and sparsely populated
 Heavy monsoon rains
 Major fishing and trading region
Geography of the Indian
Subcontinent (Con’t)
► Monsoons
 October, dry hot winds hit India
 May-June
summer monsoons
►Delicate balance of rain desired
► Cultural
 A Big number of languages, customs and
Indus Valley Civilization
► Original
civilization appeared in about 2500 B.C.
near Pakistan on the Indus River
 Mysteriously vanished
► Well
Planned Cities
 Two main cities
► Harappa
and Mohenjor Daro
 3 mile circumference city with huge warehouses
► Laid
out in a grid pattern
 Semi-modern plumbing
 Merchants had a uniform system of measure and
► Assumed
well organized government and leaders
Indus Valley Civilization (Con’t)
► People
also known as Dravidians
► Farming and Trade
 Most people were farmers
to cultivate cotton and weave it into cloth
 Some people were merchants and traders
► Religious
all the way to Sumer
 Polytheistic
Goddess source of creation
Decline and Disappearance
► Cities
began losing quality of life
► Possibly over ran by the Aryans with their
horse drawn chariots
 Aryans are from Ganges River region
Section 2
► Kingdom
of the Ganges
Aryan Civilization
► Warriors
from the Ganges River region
 Most history comes from Vedes
► Collection
of prayers
 Mostly nomadic herders who greatly valued cattle
► Aryan
 Three Groups work
► Brahmins:
► Kshatriyas: Warriors
► Vaisyas: Herders, merchants, farmers, artisans
► Sudras: Farm workers, Laborers
 Gave rise to a caste system
► Social
groups people are born into and cannot change
Aryan Civilization (Con’t)
► Aryan
Religious Beliefs
 Polytheistic
 Fierce Indra
Deity, God of War
►Weapon was a Thunderbolt
 Also honored monkey and snake Gods
 However began moving to a single spiritual
power, Braham
power that resided in all things
►Led to Mystics
 People who devote lives to seeking spiritual truth
Expansion and Change
► Aryans
were led by Rajahs
 Skilled war leaders, elected by assembly of
► From
nomads to farmers
 Learned farming from those they conquered
 By 800 B.C. learned to make tools out of iron
 By 500 B.C. Indian Civilization emerged
by Aryans and Dravidians
►New written language of sanskrit
Aryan Civilization
The Aryans destroyed and looted the civilization of the Indus Valley
and built a new Indian civilization, which reflected the following
Nomadic warriors
Felt superior to the people
they conquered
Built no cities and left no
Religious teachings from the
People born into castes, or social
groups, which they could not change
Epic Civilization
► Mahabharata
 India’s greatest epic
 Contains Bhagavad-Gita
Indian religious belief and becomes
foundation of Hindu religion
► Ramayana
 Epic hero Rama saves his beautiful bride Sita
and Sita become the model for men and
women in Indian Culture
Looking Ahead
► Aryan’s
help bring about the religions of
Hinduism and Buddhism
Section 3
► Early
Civilization in China
The Geography of China
► Most
isolated of all early civilizations
► Geographic barriers
 West and southwest of China lies Mountains
Shan and Himalayan Mountains
 North of China lies Desert
 Southeast of China lies thick jungles
 East of China
 China Traded, even to the Middle East
The Geography of China (Con’t)
► Main
 Rivers
► Huang
He (Yellow) River and Yangzi River
 Regions
► Xinjiang,
Mongolia, Manchuria and Tibet (Xizang)
 Most nomadic people in these regions
 The River of Sorrows
► Civilization
started near Huang He
► Needed to control river
 Yellow from loess
► Wind blown yellow soil
► Flooding
Devastated the region
China Under the Shang
► 1650
B.C. to 1027 B.C. Northern corner of China
ruled by the Shang Dynasty
► Government
 Kings ruled small areas with Nobles governing most
lands as clans
► Groups
of families
 Social Classes
► Mirrored
other early civilizations
 Peasant Life
► Most
people were peasants living in farming villages
 Everyone farmed, built dikes, and fought alongside their Lords
Religious Beliefs
► Polytheistic
 Chief Goddess Shang Di
Plants and Animals to earth
 Did not pray to the God, but instead to great
► Delicate
balance between Yin and Yang
 Yin
darkness and female forces
 Yang
light, and male forces
System of Writing
► Used
both pictographs and ideographs
► Consulting the Ancestors for Wisdom
 Oracle Bones
questions on a bone
►Heated it up till the bone cracked
►Interpreted the cracks
System of Writing (Con’t)
difficult study
 Chinese people must memorize up to 10,000characters
means a letter, word or idea
 Used calligraphy
 A force for unity
language was different throughout the
regions of China, but the written language stayed
the same
The Zhou Dynasty
► Zhou
from Western China overthrew Shang
► Promoted Mandate of Heaven
 Divine right to rule
 Became a Dynastic Cycle
in power till weak or corrupt
►Then taken over by another Dynasty
►Floods and Catastrophes signaled end of Dynasty
Chinese civilization took shape under the
Shang and Zhou.
Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
(1650 B.C.–1027 B.C.)
(1027 B.C.–256 B.C.)
Gained control of corner of
northern China along Huang
Drove off nomads from
northern steppes and deserts.
Held complex religious beliefs.
Developed written language
used by all Chinese people.
Overthrew the Shang.
Promoted idea of Mandate of
Set up feudal state.
Economy and commerce grew.
Population increased.
The Dynastic Cycle in
The dynastic cycle refers to the rise and fall of dynasties.
The Zhou Dynasty (Con’t)
Feudal State
 Federalism during the Zhou Dynasty
of government in which Lords governed their
lands but owed support to their ruler
► Economic
 Ironworking developed
 Better irrigation, roads, and canals
 Use of coins, or money economy
Chinese Achievements
► Made
an accurate 365 ¼ days calendar
► Silk making
 Became biggest export
developed trade route to Middle East called
Silk Road
► First
 Made first books of thin wood or bamboo
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