Ancient World History - Ash Grove R

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Ancient World History
Chapter 3
Early Civilizations in India and
China
Section 1
► Cities
of Indus Valley
Geography of the Indian
Subcontinent
► Located
in the region of South Asia or also
known as the subcontinent of India
 Large landmass that jets out from a continent
► Today
the second most populous region
► Mountains to the North
 Including the Himalayas
Geography of the Indian
Subcontinent (Con’t)
► Regions
 Three major zones
►Northern
Plains
►just south of the mountains
 Ganges and Indus Rivers
► Named India after the Indus River
►Deccan
Plateaus
 Very arid and sparsely populated
►Coastal
Plains
 Heavy monsoon rains
 Major fishing and trading region
Geography of the Indian
Subcontinent (Con’t)
► Monsoons
 October, dry hot winds hit India
 May-June
►West
summer monsoons
►Delicate balance of rain desired
► Cultural
diversity
 A Big number of languages, customs and
traditions
Indus Valley Civilization
► Original
civilization appeared in about 2500 B.C.
near Pakistan on the Indus River
 Mysteriously vanished
► Well
Planned Cities
 Two main cities
► Harappa
and Mohenjor Daro
 3 mile circumference city with huge warehouses
► Laid
out in a grid pattern
 Semi-modern plumbing
 Merchants had a uniform system of measure and
weights
► Assumed
well organized government and leaders
Indus Valley Civilization (Con’t)
► People
also known as Dravidians
► Farming and Trade
 Most people were farmers
►First
to cultivate cotton and weave it into cloth
 Some people were merchants and traders
►Sailed
► Religious
all the way to Sumer
Beliefs
 Polytheistic
►Mother
Goddess source of creation
Decline and Disappearance
► Cities
began losing quality of life
► Possibly over ran by the Aryans with their
horse drawn chariots
 Aryans are from Ganges River region
Section 2
► Kingdom
of the Ganges
Aryan Civilization
► Warriors
from the Ganges River region
 Most history comes from Vedes
► Collection
of prayers
 Mostly nomadic herders who greatly valued cattle
► Aryan
Society
 Three Groups work
► Brahmins:
Priest
► Kshatriyas: Warriors
► Vaisyas: Herders, merchants, farmers, artisans
► Sudras: Farm workers, Laborers
 Gave rise to a caste system
► Social
groups people are born into and cannot change
Aryan Civilization (Con’t)
► Aryan
Religious Beliefs
 Polytheistic
 Fierce Indra
►Main
Deity, God of War
►Weapon was a Thunderbolt
 Also honored monkey and snake Gods
 However began moving to a single spiritual
power, Braham
►Spiritual
power that resided in all things
►Led to Mystics
 People who devote lives to seeking spiritual truth
Expansion and Change
► Aryans
were led by Rajahs
 Skilled war leaders, elected by assembly of
warriors
► From
nomads to farmers
 Learned farming from those they conquered
 By 800 B.C. learned to make tools out of iron
 By 500 B.C. Indian Civilization emerged
►Blended
by Aryans and Dravidians
►New written language of sanskrit
Aryan Civilization
2
The Aryans destroyed and looted the civilization of the Indus Valley
and built a new Indian civilization, which reflected the following
characteristics:
Nomadic warriors
Felt superior to the people
they conquered
Built no cities and left no
statues
Polytheistic
Religious teachings from the
Vedas
People born into castes, or social
groups, which they could not change
Epic Civilization
► Mahabharata
 India’s greatest epic
 Contains Bhagavad-Gita
►Shows
Indian religious belief and becomes
foundation of Hindu religion
► Ramayana
 Epic hero Rama saves his beautiful bride Sita
►Rama
and Sita become the model for men and
women in Indian Culture
Looking Ahead
► Aryan’s
help bring about the religions of
Hinduism and Buddhism
Section 3
► Early
Civilization in China
The Geography of China
► Most
isolated of all early civilizations
► Geographic barriers
 West and southwest of China lies Mountains
►Tien
Shan and Himalayan Mountains
 North of China lies Desert
►Gobi
Desert
 Southeast of China lies thick jungles
 East of China
►Pacific
Ocean
 China Traded, even to the Middle East
The Geography of China (Con’t)
► Main
Regions
 Rivers
► Huang
He (Yellow) River and Yangzi River
 Regions
► Xinjiang,
Mongolia, Manchuria and Tibet (Xizang)
 Most nomadic people in these regions
 The River of Sorrows
► Civilization
started near Huang He
► Needed to control river
 Yellow from loess
► Wind blown yellow soil
► Flooding
Devastated the region
China Under the Shang
► 1650
B.C. to 1027 B.C. Northern corner of China
ruled by the Shang Dynasty
► Government
 Kings ruled small areas with Nobles governing most
lands as clans
► Groups
of families
 Social Classes
► Mirrored
other early civilizations
 Peasant Life
► Most
people were peasants living in farming villages
 Everyone farmed, built dikes, and fought alongside their Lords
Religious Beliefs
► Polytheistic
 Chief Goddess Shang Di
►Brought
Plants and Animals to earth
 Did not pray to the God, but instead to great
ancestors
► Delicate
balance between Yin and Yang
 Yin
►Earth,
darkness and female forces
 Yang
►Heaven,
light, and male forces
System of Writing
► Used
both pictographs and ideographs
► Consulting the Ancestors for Wisdom
 Oracle Bones
►Wrote
questions on a bone
►Heated it up till the bone cracked
►Interpreted the cracks
System of Writing (Con’t)
►A
difficult study
 Chinese people must memorize up to 10,000characters
►Each
means a letter, word or idea
 Used calligraphy
►Fine
handwriting
 A force for unity
►Spoken
language was different throughout the
regions of China, but the written language stayed
the same
The Zhou Dynasty
► Zhou
from Western China overthrew Shang
Dynasty
► Promoted Mandate of Heaven
 Divine right to rule
 Became a Dynastic Cycle
►Dynasty
in power till weak or corrupt
►Then taken over by another Dynasty
►Floods and Catastrophes signaled end of Dynasty
Chinese civilization took shape under the
Shang and Zhou.
3
Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
(1650 B.C.–1027 B.C.)
(1027 B.C.–256 B.C.)
Gained control of corner of
northern China along Huang
He.
Drove off nomads from
northern steppes and deserts.
Held complex religious beliefs.
Developed written language
used by all Chinese people.
Overthrew the Shang.
Promoted idea of Mandate of
Heaven.
Set up feudal state.
Economy and commerce grew.
Population increased.
3
The Dynastic Cycle in
China
The dynastic cycle refers to the rise and fall of dynasties.
The Zhou Dynasty (Con’t)
►A
Feudal State
 Federalism during the Zhou Dynasty
►System
of government in which Lords governed their
lands but owed support to their ruler
► Economic
Growth
 Ironworking developed
 Better irrigation, roads, and canals
 Use of coins, or money economy
►Population
explosion
Chinese Achievements
► Made
an accurate 365 ¼ days calendar
► Silk making
 Became biggest export
►Later
developed trade route to Middle East called
Silk Road
► First
Books
 Made first books of thin wood or bamboo
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